Psyc 129

Card Set Information

Author:
Anonymous
ID:
112366
Filename:
Psyc 129
Updated:
2011-10-26 14:41:59
Tags:
Psyc 129
Folders:

Description:
Psyc 129
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. 1.
    Describe drug craving and withdrawal. What are
    the neural substrates associated with each?
    • Craving= enhanced transmission in the
    • mesocorticalimbic dopamine system during drug use.
  2. 1.
    What are the roles of dopamine, acetylcholine and
    serotonin in addiction?
    • Dopamine and Seritonin= produce drug hunger and
    • real hunger.

    -Dopamine= primary fuel for addiction

    • -Acetylocholine= Addition is a potential role of
    • acetylocholine, conditioned, learned, reward…
  3. 1.
    How are the nucleus accumbens and orbitofrontal
    cortex involved in addiction?
    - They both establish addiction
  4. 1.
    How is dopamine and the reward pathway involved
    in learning, and how does this affect addiction?
    • -
    • Reduced
    • dopamine activity from drugs make learning difficult.

    • -
    • -Dopamine is
    • released when reward pathway is stimulated.
  5. 1.
    Name the lobes of the brain, indicate where they
    are located and discuss their functions?
    Frontal Lobe- Motor, speech and thought process.

    • Parietal Lobe- Cognition, Information processing,
    • pain and touch (somata sensory).

    Occipital Lobe- Vision

    Temporal Lobe- Auditory, memory and learning.
  6. 1.
    Describe the major subdivisions of the forebrain?
    List major structures found in each and give their functions.
    • -Forebrain=
    • cortex and lobes, (sub cortical) Limbic system, Basal Ganglia, thalamus,
    • Hypothalamus (the forebrain is broken down into 2 sections)

    • -Telencephalon =
    • Cerebral Cortex, Basal Ganglia and Limbic System= organization and planning,
    • motor, learning memory.

    • -Diencephalon =
    • Thalamus and Hypothalamus.= eating, drinking, sex, biorhythms and temperature
    • control.
  7. 1.
    Describe how the major divisions of the brain
    arise from the neural tube.
    • First neural plate folds, curls over to make
    • forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain.
  8. 1.
    How is visual information transduced?
    • -Absorption of light causes rhodopsin
    • to break into opsin and retinal.

    -Enzymes break down cyclic GMP.

    -Fewer sodium channels remain open.

    • -Cell hyperpolarizes in light (it’s
    • depolarized in the dark).

    • -Photoreceptors produce graded
    • potentials
















    • ANSWER
    • 2

    • -Photopigments are located in the
    • membrane of the outer segment of rods and cones

    • -Each pigment consists of an opsin
    • (a protein) and retinal (a lipid)

    • -In the dark, membrane NA+
    • channels are open -> glutamate is released which depolarizes the membrane

    • -Light splits the opsin and retinal
    • apart->

    • -Activates transducin (G
    • protein)->

    -Activates phosphodiesterase->

    • -Reduces cGMP -> closes NA+
    • channels

    • -The net effect of light is to hyperpolarize the retinal
    • receptor and reduce the release of glutamate.
  9. 1.
    Describe the primary visual pathway and the
    secondary extrastriatal pathways.
    • -
    • Striate

    • -
    • Secondary
    • pathway- Tectum – back to aliarybody (pupil control) to hypothamamus, then to
    • colliculus
  10. 1.
    Provide an example of how the sensory systems
    process information in both a serial and parallel fashion.
    • - Parallel processing- two eyes to see depth
    • perception in the world. The two eyes provide two visual streams. Appear to be
    • independent streams of information about light and dark. Ganglion cells of both
    • ON and OFF have different tyes of receptive fields.
  11. Drug Addiction
    • Strong desire to consume a drug accompanied by diminishing capacity to
    • limit the intake of the drug. (SLIDES- Drug addiction is conceptualized
    • as a chronic relapsing syndrome that moves from an impulse control disorder
    • involving positive reinforcement to a compulsive disorder involving negative
    • reinforcement)
  12. Addiction syndrome
    • Vast array of variables, sometimes difficult to tease apart, typically
    • associated with drug addiction, including one’s predisposition to consume
    • drugs, the development of tolerance to a drug, withdrawal symptoms on the
    • removal of a drug, craving for a drug, and the likelihood of relapse after
    • ceasing consumption of a drug.
  13. Tolerance
    • Defining feature of drug addiction in which the individual becomes
    • increasingly less sensitive to the drug, requires higher doses to obtain the
    • initial effect of the drug.
  14. Withdrawal
    • Defining feature of drug addiction in which the individual experiences
    • either physiological or psychological symptoms after ceasing the consumption of
    • a particular drug.
  15. Negative reinforcement
    • Cessation of an aversive stimulus on the presentation of a particular
    • response. Relapse into drug use is reinforced because it reduces the negative
    • experience of withdrawal.
  16. Dependence
    • Development of tolerance and withdrawal following chronic use of a drug;
    • physical and psychological problems arise upon cessation of drug use.
  17. Vental tegmental area (VTA
    • Cluster of cell bodies in the midbrain that synthesize dopamine; extends
    • to the nucleus accumbens and is involved with reward circuits of the brain.
  18. Orbitofrontal Cortex (OFC)
    • plays an important role in aquiring an addiction, there is more than the
    • simple pleasure. Caused the rats to keep pushing the lever for cocaine.
    • Stimulation to the brain lever.
  19. Extended amygdala
    • Brain structures continuous with and sharing morphological similarities
    • with the amygdaloid nuclei, including the nucleus accumbens, BNST, and olfactory
    • lobe.















    • -Also works with hippocampus, prefrontal cortex
    • to send projections to the nucleus accumbens.
  20. Medial forebrain bundle
    • Large collection of axons that extend from the hypothalamus to the
    • septum, a structure in the limbic system. Animals respond continuously to
    • receiving electrical brain stimulation in this area; consequently, it is
    • considered the most prevalent brain reward system of the nervous system.
  21. Microdialysis
    • Neurochemical technique in which the level of a neurotransmitter from a
    • particular area of the brain is assessed. This technique is unique because the
    • researcher can extract the neurotransmitter while the animal is engaging in a
    • particular behavior.
  22. Place preference
    • The rat get injections in one certain place, There is another place
    • available to the rat when it is drug free. If it prefers the same compartment
    • as when it was injected is it place pereference. Rats do this.
  23. Mesolimbic pathway
    • (Mesolimbic dopamine pathway)- Neurons extending from the midbrain to
    • the forebrain produce and release dopamine into the forebrain. Two pathways
    • make up this system: (1) the mesocorticolimbic (reward circuit) system extends from the ventral tegmental
    • area to the nucleus accumbens; (2) the nigrostriatal pathway, involved in
    • neuromuscular functions, extends from the substantia nigra to the corpus
    • striatum.
  24. Craving response
    Persistent, intense desire to consume a drug.
  25. split brain
    • An examination of behavior
    • in animals or humans whose cerebral hemispheres have been disconnected by
    • cutting the corpus callosum.
  26. Parkinson's disease
    • A movement disorder caused by
    • damage to the substantia nigra, characterized by paucity of movement,
    • difficulty in initiating willed movement, and resting tremor.

    • - A result of the depletion of
    • cerebral dopamine.
  27. substantia nigra
    • A cell group in the
    • midbrain that uses dopamine as a neurotransmitter and innervates the striatum.
  28. homunculus
    • Naked big handed and lipped
    • guy.
  29. cerebellum
    • located in the
    • metencephalon that participates in balance, muscle tone, muscle coordination,
    • some types of learning, and possibly higher cognitive functions in humans.
  30. basal ganglia
    • Collection of nuclei within
    • the cerebral hemispheres that participates in the control of movement.
  31. limbic system
    • forebrain structures that
    • participate in emotional behavior and learning.
  32. Meninges
    • Three membranes that cover
    • the surface of the central nervous system and the peripheral nerves.
  33. Planes of dissection
    • Sagittal plane- Left from right Coronal (or
    • transverse) plane- Front from back. Horizontal
    • plane- Top from Bottom.
  34. Ventricular system
    • The cerebrospinal fluid-
    • filled spaces inside the brain, consisting of the lateral ventricles, third
    • ventricle, cerebral aqueduct, and fourth ventricle.
  35. Hydrocephalus
    Swelling of ventricles in babies

    • - Serious issue for adults
    • because skull can not expland.
  36. Differentiation of the Forebrain
    • Secondary vesicles: Optic
    • and telencephalon and Diencephalon (between brain)
  37. Spina bifida
    • Results from failure of the
    • anterior and posterior ends of the tubes to close.
  38. Anencephaly
    • Results from failure of the
    • neural tube to close.
  39. Secondary vesicles of forebrain
    Optic and telencephalon
  40. Midbrain structure and function
    • Passes information from the
    • spinal cord to the forebrain, contribute to sensory systems, control of
    • movement, pain mood and pleasure.
  41. Differentiation of Hindbrain
    • Cerebellum- tissue along dorsal
    • lateral side or rostril hindbrain until it fuses with other side.

    -3 Stages

    • -PONS- ventral wall, swells to
    • form PONS.

    • -Medulla Oblongata – walls of
    • caudal portion of hindbrain swells.

    • 4th ventricle-
    • residual central ventricle in hindbrain.
  42. Neocortex
    • The cerebral cortex, with
    • six or more layers of neurons, found only in mammals.
  43. Primary cortical areas
    • – Primary motor cortex- An area of the cortex in the frontal lobe that
    • provides the highest level of processing for body senses such as touch,
    • position, temperature and pain. Primary visual cortex- an area of the sensory
    • cortex in the occipital lobe that provides the initial cortical processing of
    • visual information.
  44. Central sulcus
    • The sulcus in the cerebrum
    • that divides the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe.
  45. Lateral fissure
    • Separates Temporal and
    • frontal lobes.
  46. Primary motor cortex
    • Brodmann’s area 4, located
    • on the precentral gyrus; the region of cortex that, when weakly stimulated,
    • elicits localized signals at the body’s sensory surfaces.
  47. Primary Somatosensory cortical areas-
    • Brodmann’s area 3b located
    • in the postcentral gyrus, also called S1.
  48. Longitudinal cerebral fissure
    • The large separation of the
    • hemispheres, (right down the corpus collosum.
  49. Agnosia-
    • The inability to recognize
    • objects, even though simple sensory skills appear to be noral: most commonly
    • caused by damage to posterior parietal areas of the brain.
  50. Neurons of retina
    120 million rods

    -6 million cones
  51. Photopigment
    • Visual pigment found in
    • retina, altered by light.
  52. Fovea
    • The pit or depression in
    • the retina at the center of the macula; in humans, the fovea contains only cone
    • photoreceptors ad is specialized for high-acuity vision.
  53. Optic disk
    • The location on the retina where
    • optic nerve axons leave the eye.
  54. Accomodation by the lens
    - The focusing of light by changing the shape of the eye’s lens.
  55. Trichromatic theory of color vision
    • color vision reacts from 3
    • different receptors.
  56. Opponent process theory of color vision
    • Color vision is based on
    • red-green and blue-yellow opposition.
  57. LGN (Lateral Geniculate Nucleus)-
    • A thalamic nucleus that
    • relays information from the retina to the primary visual cortex.
  58. Retinotopic
    • The topographic
    • organization of visual pathways in which neighboring cells on the retina send
    • information to neighboring cells in a target structure.
  59. visual hemifield
    • The half of the visual
    • field to one side of the fixation point.
  60. binocular visual field
    • The portion of the visual
    • field viewed by both eyes.
  61. optic tectum
    • A term used to describe the
    • superior colliculus, particularly in nonmammalian vertebrates.
  62. superior colliculi-
    • A structure in the tectum
    • of the midbrain that receives direct retinal input and controls saccadic eye
    • movements.
  63. M, P, non-M and P cells
    Ganglion cells
  64. blobs
    • A collection of cells,
    • mainl in primary visual cortical layers II & III, characterized by a high
    • level of the enzyme cytochrome oxidase.
  65. koniocellular (LGN) layer
    • A layer of the lateral
    • geniculate nucleus containing very small clles, lying just ventral to each
    • magnocellular and pavocellular layer.
  66. Cortical modules
    • The unit of cerebral cortex
    • that is necessary and sufficient to analyze one discrete point in a sensory
    • surface.
  67. primary visual cortex
    • Brodmann’s area 3b located at the
    • pole of the occipital lobe’ also called striate cortex and V1.

    -4th Layer, Primary layer for input.
  68. striate cortex
    • Primary visual cortex,
    • Brodmann’s area 17; also called V1.
  69. receptive field
    • The region of a sensory
    • surface (retina, skin) that, when stimulated, changes the membrane potential of
    • a neuron.
  70. blind spot
    • Optic nerve, no sensory
    • area in the retina where the nerve is.

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview