Psyc 129

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  1. 1.
    Describe drug craving and withdrawal. What are
    the neural substrates associated with each?
    • Craving= enhanced transmission in the
    • mesocorticalimbic dopamine system during drug use.
  2. 1.
    What are the roles of dopamine, acetylcholine and
    serotonin in addiction?
    • Dopamine and Seritonin= produce drug hunger and
    • real hunger.

    -Dopamine= primary fuel for addiction

    • -Acetylocholine= Addition is a potential role of
    • acetylocholine, conditioned, learned, reward…
  3. 1.
    How are the nucleus accumbens and orbitofrontal
    cortex involved in addiction?
    - They both establish addiction
  4. 1.
    How is dopamine and the reward pathway involved
    in learning, and how does this affect addiction?
    • -
    • Reduced
    • dopamine activity from drugs make learning difficult.

    • -
    • -Dopamine is
    • released when reward pathway is stimulated.
  5. 1.
    Name the lobes of the brain, indicate where they
    are located and discuss their functions?
    Frontal Lobe- Motor, speech and thought process.

    • Parietal Lobe- Cognition, Information processing,
    • pain and touch (somata sensory).

    Occipital Lobe- Vision

    Temporal Lobe- Auditory, memory and learning.
  6. 1.
    Describe the major subdivisions of the forebrain?
    List major structures found in each and give their functions.
    • -Forebrain=
    • cortex and lobes, (sub cortical) Limbic system, Basal Ganglia, thalamus,
    • Hypothalamus (the forebrain is broken down into 2 sections)

    • -Telencephalon =
    • Cerebral Cortex, Basal Ganglia and Limbic System= organization and planning,
    • motor, learning memory.

    • -Diencephalon =
    • Thalamus and Hypothalamus.= eating, drinking, sex, biorhythms and temperature
    • control.
  7. 1.
    Describe how the major divisions of the brain
    arise from the neural tube.
    • First neural plate folds, curls over to make
    • forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain.
  8. 1.
    How is visual information transduced?
    • -Absorption of light causes rhodopsin
    • to break into opsin and retinal.

    -Enzymes break down cyclic GMP.

    -Fewer sodium channels remain open.

    • -Cell hyperpolarizes in light (it’s
    • depolarized in the dark).

    • -Photoreceptors produce graded
    • potentials

    • ANSWER
    • 2

    • -Photopigments are located in the
    • membrane of the outer segment of rods and cones

    • -Each pigment consists of an opsin
    • (a protein) and retinal (a lipid)

    • -In the dark, membrane NA+
    • channels are open -> glutamate is released which depolarizes the membrane

    • -Light splits the opsin and retinal
    • apart->

    • -Activates transducin (G
    • protein)->

    -Activates phosphodiesterase->

    • -Reduces cGMP -> closes NA+
    • channels

    • -The net effect of light is to hyperpolarize the retinal
    • receptor and reduce the release of glutamate.
  9. 1.
    Describe the primary visual pathway and the
    secondary extrastriatal pathways.
    • -
    • Striate

    • -
    • Secondary
    • pathway- Tectum – back to aliarybody (pupil control) to hypothamamus, then to
    • colliculus
  10. 1.
    Provide an example of how the sensory systems
    process information in both a serial and parallel fashion.
    • - Parallel processing- two eyes to see depth
    • perception in the world. The two eyes provide two visual streams. Appear to be
    • independent streams of information about light and dark. Ganglion cells of both
    • ON and OFF have different tyes of receptive fields.
  11. Drug Addiction
    • Strong desire to consume a drug accompanied by diminishing capacity to
    • limit the intake of the drug. (SLIDES- Drug addiction is conceptualized
    • as a chronic relapsing syndrome that moves from an impulse control disorder
    • involving positive reinforcement to a compulsive disorder involving negative
    • reinforcement)
  12. Addiction syndrome
    • Vast array of variables, sometimes difficult to tease apart, typically
    • associated with drug addiction, including one’s predisposition to consume
    • drugs, the development of tolerance to a drug, withdrawal symptoms on the
    • removal of a drug, craving for a drug, and the likelihood of relapse after
    • ceasing consumption of a drug.
  13. Tolerance
    • Defining feature of drug addiction in which the individual becomes
    • increasingly less sensitive to the drug, requires higher doses to obtain the
    • initial effect of the drug.
  14. Withdrawal
    • Defining feature of drug addiction in which the individual experiences
    • either physiological or psychological symptoms after ceasing the consumption of
    • a particular drug.
  15. Negative reinforcement
    • Cessation of an aversive stimulus on the presentation of a particular
    • response. Relapse into drug use is reinforced because it reduces the negative
    • experience of withdrawal.
  16. Dependence
    • Development of tolerance and withdrawal following chronic use of a drug;
    • physical and psychological problems arise upon cessation of drug use.
  17. Vental tegmental area (VTA
    • Cluster of cell bodies in the midbrain that synthesize dopamine; extends
    • to the nucleus accumbens and is involved with reward circuits of the brain.
  18. Orbitofrontal Cortex (OFC)
    • plays an important role in aquiring an addiction, there is more than the
    • simple pleasure. Caused the rats to keep pushing the lever for cocaine.
    • Stimulation to the brain lever.
  19. Extended amygdala
    • Brain structures continuous with and sharing morphological similarities
    • with the amygdaloid nuclei, including the nucleus accumbens, BNST, and olfactory
    • lobe.

    • -Also works with hippocampus, prefrontal cortex
    • to send projections to the nucleus accumbens.
  20. Medial forebrain bundle
    • Large collection of axons that extend from the hypothalamus to the
    • septum, a structure in the limbic system. Animals respond continuously to
    • receiving electrical brain stimulation in this area; consequently, it is
    • considered the most prevalent brain reward system of the nervous system.
  21. Microdialysis
    • Neurochemical technique in which the level of a neurotransmitter from a
    • particular area of the brain is assessed. This technique is unique because the
    • researcher can extract the neurotransmitter while the animal is engaging in a
    • particular behavior.
  22. Place preference
    • The rat get injections in one certain place, There is another place
    • available to the rat when it is drug free. If it prefers the same compartment
    • as when it was injected is it place pereference. Rats do this.
  23. Mesolimbic pathway
    • (Mesolimbic dopamine pathway)- Neurons extending from the midbrain to
    • the forebrain produce and release dopamine into the forebrain. Two pathways
    • make up this system: (1) the mesocorticolimbic (reward circuit) system extends from the ventral tegmental
    • area to the nucleus accumbens; (2) the nigrostriatal pathway, involved in
    • neuromuscular functions, extends from the substantia nigra to the corpus
    • striatum.
  24. Craving response
    Persistent, intense desire to consume a drug.
  25. split brain
    • An examination of behavior
    • in animals or humans whose cerebral hemispheres have been disconnected by
    • cutting the corpus callosum.
  26. Parkinson's disease
    • A movement disorder caused by
    • damage to the substantia nigra, characterized by paucity of movement,
    • difficulty in initiating willed movement, and resting tremor.

    • - A result of the depletion of
    • cerebral dopamine.
  27. substantia nigra
    • A cell group in the
    • midbrain that uses dopamine as a neurotransmitter and innervates the striatum.
  28. homunculus
    • Naked big handed and lipped
    • guy.
  29. cerebellum
    • located in the
    • metencephalon that participates in balance, muscle tone, muscle coordination,
    • some types of learning, and possibly higher cognitive functions in humans.
  30. basal ganglia
    • Collection of nuclei within
    • the cerebral hemispheres that participates in the control of movement.
  31. limbic system
    • forebrain structures that
    • participate in emotional behavior and learning.
  32. Meninges
    • Three membranes that cover
    • the surface of the central nervous system and the peripheral nerves.
  33. Planes of dissection
    • Sagittal plane- Left from right Coronal (or
    • transverse) plane- Front from back. Horizontal
    • plane- Top from Bottom.
  34. Ventricular system
    • The cerebrospinal fluid-
    • filled spaces inside the brain, consisting of the lateral ventricles, third
    • ventricle, cerebral aqueduct, and fourth ventricle.
  35. Hydrocephalus
    Swelling of ventricles in babies

    • - Serious issue for adults
    • because skull can not expland.
  36. Differentiation of the Forebrain
    • Secondary vesicles: Optic
    • and telencephalon and Diencephalon (between brain)
  37. Spina bifida
    • Results from failure of the
    • anterior and posterior ends of the tubes to close.
  38. Anencephaly
    • Results from failure of the
    • neural tube to close.
  39. Secondary vesicles of forebrain
    Optic and telencephalon
  40. Midbrain structure and function
    • Passes information from the
    • spinal cord to the forebrain, contribute to sensory systems, control of
    • movement, pain mood and pleasure.
  41. Differentiation of Hindbrain
    • Cerebellum- tissue along dorsal
    • lateral side or rostril hindbrain until it fuses with other side.

    -3 Stages

    • -PONS- ventral wall, swells to
    • form PONS.

    • -Medulla Oblongata – walls of
    • caudal portion of hindbrain swells.

    • 4th ventricle-
    • residual central ventricle in hindbrain.
  42. Neocortex
    • The cerebral cortex, with
    • six or more layers of neurons, found only in mammals.
  43. Primary cortical areas
    • – Primary motor cortex- An area of the cortex in the frontal lobe that
    • provides the highest level of processing for body senses such as touch,
    • position, temperature and pain. Primary visual cortex- an area of the sensory
    • cortex in the occipital lobe that provides the initial cortical processing of
    • visual information.
  44. Central sulcus
    • The sulcus in the cerebrum
    • that divides the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe.
  45. Lateral fissure
    • Separates Temporal and
    • frontal lobes.
  46. Primary motor cortex
    • Brodmann’s area 4, located
    • on the precentral gyrus; the region of cortex that, when weakly stimulated,
    • elicits localized signals at the body’s sensory surfaces.
  47. Primary Somatosensory cortical areas-
    • Brodmann’s area 3b located
    • in the postcentral gyrus, also called S1.
  48. Longitudinal cerebral fissure
    • The large separation of the
    • hemispheres, (right down the corpus collosum.
  49. Agnosia-
    • The inability to recognize
    • objects, even though simple sensory skills appear to be noral: most commonly
    • caused by damage to posterior parietal areas of the brain.
  50. Neurons of retina
    120 million rods

    -6 million cones
  51. Photopigment
    • Visual pigment found in
    • retina, altered by light.
  52. Fovea
    • The pit or depression in
    • the retina at the center of the macula; in humans, the fovea contains only cone
    • photoreceptors ad is specialized for high-acuity vision.
  53. Optic disk
    • The location on the retina where
    • optic nerve axons leave the eye.
  54. Accomodation by the lens
    - The focusing of light by changing the shape of the eye’s lens.
  55. Trichromatic theory of color vision
    • color vision reacts from 3
    • different receptors.
  56. Opponent process theory of color vision
    • Color vision is based on
    • red-green and blue-yellow opposition.
  57. LGN (Lateral Geniculate Nucleus)-
    • A thalamic nucleus that
    • relays information from the retina to the primary visual cortex.
  58. Retinotopic
    • The topographic
    • organization of visual pathways in which neighboring cells on the retina send
    • information to neighboring cells in a target structure.
  59. visual hemifield
    • The half of the visual
    • field to one side of the fixation point.
  60. binocular visual field
    • The portion of the visual
    • field viewed by both eyes.
  61. optic tectum
    • A term used to describe the
    • superior colliculus, particularly in nonmammalian vertebrates.
  62. superior colliculi-
    • A structure in the tectum
    • of the midbrain that receives direct retinal input and controls saccadic eye
    • movements.
  63. M, P, non-M and P cells
    Ganglion cells
  64. blobs
    • A collection of cells,
    • mainl in primary visual cortical layers II & III, characterized by a high
    • level of the enzyme cytochrome oxidase.
  65. koniocellular (LGN) layer
    • A layer of the lateral
    • geniculate nucleus containing very small clles, lying just ventral to each
    • magnocellular and pavocellular layer.
  66. Cortical modules
    • The unit of cerebral cortex
    • that is necessary and sufficient to analyze one discrete point in a sensory
    • surface.
  67. primary visual cortex
    • Brodmann’s area 3b located at the
    • pole of the occipital lobe’ also called striate cortex and V1.

    -4th Layer, Primary layer for input.
  68. striate cortex
    • Primary visual cortex,
    • Brodmann’s area 17; also called V1.
  69. receptive field
    • The region of a sensory
    • surface (retina, skin) that, when stimulated, changes the membrane potential of
    • a neuron.
  70. blind spot
    • Optic nerve, no sensory
    • area in the retina where the nerve is.

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Psyc 129
2011-10-26 18:41:59
Psyc 129

Psyc 129
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