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  1. abdomen
    ventral part of the bird; belly
  2. alula
    three feathers springing from the base of the primaries; allular quills
  3. auricular
    area around ear opening; ear patch, ear converts
  4. back
    dorsal part of the bird
  5. bill
  6. breast
    front part of the chest
  7. cap
    top of the crown
  8. cere
    fleshy area between the beak and face
  9. cheek
    area bonded by lore, eye, auricular, and lower mandible
  10. cloaca
    the single opening in birds used for both repro and excrement
  11. cloacal kiss
    term used to describe copultion
  12. comb
    colored area over eye found in males
  13. crest
    tuft on the head
  14. crown
    top of the head
  15. ear patch
    area around ear opening; auricular
  16. eye line
    line of feathers in front of and behind the eye
  17. eye ring
    pale-colored feathers encircling the eye
  18. eyelid
    skin fold covering the eye
  19. flank
    area between the belly and the wings
  20. flight feathers
    primaries and secondaries
  21. gape
    base of the bill where the mandibles join.
  22. gular region
    between the chin and foreneck
  23. hindneck
    back of the neck
  24. horns
    paired contour feathers arising from the head
  25. inner secondaries
    group of secondaries closest to the body
  26. jugulum
    front part of the neck
  27. lore
    area between the eye and the bill
  28. mantle
    upper surface of the wings and the back
  29. nostril
    external naris
  30. occiput
    rear portion of crown; hindhead
  31. operculum
    swollen structure in pigeons overarching the nostril
  32. outer tail feathers
    part of the tail farthest from the center
  33. pinnae
    projecting feathers
  34. plumes
    large, conspicuous, showy feathers
  35. primaries
    flight feathers attached to the 'hand'
  36. ruffs
    fringe of feathers growing on the neck
  37. rump
    area between the uppertail converts and the back
  38. secondaries
    flight feathers attached the the 'elbow'
  39. tail
    feathers extending from the rear of the bird
  40. vent
    opening of the cloaca or anus
  41. whisker
    area all the sides of the chin
  42. wing lining
    median, lesser and marginal coverts on underwing
  43. wing stripe
    paler area at base of flight feathers
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