PSYCH SENSATIONS

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jeffcindric
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112414
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PSYCH SENSATIONS
Updated:
2011-11-14 21:40:57
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SENSATION
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SENSATIONS CHAPTER
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  1. DEFINE SENSATION
    THE PROCESS BY WHICH OUR SENSORY RECEPTORS AND NERVOUS SYSTEM RECIEVE AND REPRESENT STIMULUS ENERGIES FROM OUR ENVIRONMENT.
  2. DEFINE PERCEPTION
    THE PROCESS OF ORGANIZING AND INTERPRETING SENSORY INFORMATION, ENABLING US TO RECOGNIZE MEANINGFUL OBJECTS AND EVENTS
  3. WHAT'S BOTTOM-UP PROCESSING?
    ANALYSIS THAT BEGINS WITH THE SENSORY RECEPTORS AND WORKS UP TO THE BRAIN'S INTEGREATION OF SENSORY INFORMATION.
  4. WHAT'S TOP-DOWN PROCESSING?
    INFORMATION PROCESSING GUIDED BY HIGHER-LEVEL MENTAL PROCESSES, AS WHEN WE CONSTRUCT PERCEPTIONS DRAWING ON OUR EXPERIENCE AND EXPECTATIONS.
  5. DEFINE PSYCHOPHYSICS
    THE STUDY OF REALTIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STIMULI, SUCH AS THEIR INTENSITY, AND OUR PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPERIENCE OF THEM.
  6. DEFINE ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD
    THE MINIMUM STIMULATION TO DETECT A PARTICULAR STIMULUS 50 PERCENT OF THE TIME.
  7. WHAT'S THE SIGNAL DETECTION THEORY?
    A THEORY PREDICTING HOW AND WHEN WE DETECT THE PRESENCE OF A FAINT STIMULUS (SIGNAL) AMID BACKGROUND STIMULATION (NOISE). ASSUMES THERE IS NO SINGLE ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD AND THAT DETECTION DEPENDS PARTLY ON A PERSON'S EXPERIENCE, EXPECTATIONS, MOTIVATION AND LEVEL OF FATIGUE.
  8. WHAT DOES IT MEAN IF SOMETHING IS SUBLIMINAL?
    IT'S BELOW ONE'S ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD FOR CONSCIOUS AWARENESS.
  9. WHAT IS PRIMING?
    THE ACTIVATION, OFTEN UNCONSCIOUSLY, OF CERTAIN ASSOCIATIONS, THUS PREDISPOSING ONE'S PERCEPTION, MEMORY, OR RESPONSE.
  10. WHATS THE DIFFERENCE THRESHOLD?
    THE MINIMUM DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TWO STIMULI REQUIRED FOR DETECTION 50 PERCENT OF THE TIME. WE EXPERIENCE THIS AS A JUST NOTICEABLE DIFFERENCE.
  11. WHATS WEBER'S LAW?
    THE PRINCIPAL THAT, TO BE PERCIEVED AS DIFFERENT, TWO STIMULI MUST DIFFER BY A CONSTANT MINIMUM PERCENTAGE (RATHER THAN AMOUNT).
  12. WHATS SENSORY ADAPTION?
    DIMINISHED SENSITIVITY AS A CONSEQUENCE OF CONSTANT STIMULATION.
  13. WHAT'S TRANSDUCTION?
    CONVERSION OF ONE FORM OF ENERGY INTO ANOTHER. IN SENSATION, THE TRANSFORMING OF STIMULUS ENERGIES, SUCH AS SIGHTS, SOUNDS AND SMELLS, INTO NEURAL IMPULSES OUR BRAINS CAN INTERPRET.
  14. DEFINE ACCOMODATION
    THE PROCESS BY WHICH THE EYE'S LENS CHANGES SHAPE TO FOCUS NEAR OR FAR OBJECTS ON THE RETINA.
  15. WHATS ACUITY?
    THE SHARPNESS OF VISION
  16. NEARSIGHTEDNESS
    OBJECTS THAT ARE NEAR ARE MORE CLEAR BECAUSE THE FAR OBECTS ARE FOCUSED IN FRONT OF THE RETINA.
  17. FARSIGHTEDNESS
    FAR OBJECTS ARE MORE CLEAR BECAUSE THE IMAGE OF NEAR OBJECTS IS FOCUSED BEHIND THE RETINA.
  18. WHAT DO THE RODS IN THE RETINA DO?
    THEY DETECT BLACK, WHITE AND GRAY; NECESSARY FOR PERIPHERAL AND TWILIGHT VISION
  19. WHAT DO THE CONES IN THE RETINA DO?
    THEY ARE CONCENTRATED NEAR THE CENTER OF THE RETINA AND FUNCTION DURING THE DAYLIGHT OR IN WELL LIGHT CONDITIONS. THE CONES DETECT FINE DETAIL AND GIVE RISE TO COLOR SENSATIONS.
  20. WHATS DOES THE OPTIC NERVE DO?
    CARRIES NEURAL IMPULSES FROM THE EYE TO THE BRAIN.
  21. WHATS THE FOVEA?
    THE CENTRAL FOCAL POINT IN THE RETINA, AROUND WHICH THE EYES CONES CLUSTER.
  22. WHAT ARE FEATURE DETECTORS?
    NERVE CELLS IN THE BRAIN THAT RESPOND TO SPECIFIC FEATURES OF THE STIMULUS, SUCH AS SHAPE, ANGLE, OR MOVEMENT.
  23. WHAT'S PARALLEL PROCESSING?
    THE PROCESSING OF SEVERAL ASPECTS OF A PROBLEM SIMULATANEOUSLY; THE BRAIN'S NATURAL MODE OF INFORMATION PROCESSING FOR MANY FUNCTIONS, INCLUDING VISION. CONTRASTS WITH THE STEP-BY-STEP (SERIAL) PROCESSING OF MOST COMPUTERS AND OF CONSCIOUS PROBLEM SOLVING.
  24. WHATS YOUNG-HEMHOLTZ TRICHROMATIC THEORY?
    WE HAVE 3 (RGB) COLOR RECEPTORS IN OUR EYES.
  25. WHATS COLOR CONSISTANCY?
    PERCIEVING FAMILIAR OBJECTS AS HAVING CONSISTANT COLOR, EVEN IF CHANGING ILLUMINATIONG ALTERS THE WAVELENGTHS REFLECTED BY THE OBJECTS.
  26. DEFINE AUDITION
    THE SENSE OF ACT OF HEARING
  27. DEFINE FREQUENCY OF SOUND
    THE NUMBER OF COMPLETE WAVELENGTHS THAT PASS A POINT IN A GIVEN TIME.
  28. DEFINE PITCH OF SOUND
    A TONE'S EXPERIENCED HIGHNESS OR LOWNESS; DEPENDS ON FREQUENCY
  29. DEFINE MIDDLE EAR
    ITS THE CHAMBER BETWEEN THE EARDRUM AND COCHLEA CONTAING THREE TINY BONES (HAMMER, ANVIL, STIRRUP) THAT CONCENTRATE THE VIBRATIONS OF THE EARDRUM ON THE COCHLEA'S OVAL WINDOW
  30. WHATS THE COCHLEA
    A COILED, BONY, FLUID FILLED TUBE IN THE INNER EAR THROUGH WHICH SOUND WAVES TRIGGER NEURAL IMPULSES.
  31. WHAT'S THE INNER EAR?
    THE INNERMOST PART OF THE EAR, CONTAINING THE COCHLEA, SEMICIRCULAR CANALS, AND VESTIBULAR SACS.
  32. DESCRIBE THE PLACE THEORY, PERTAINING TO HOW WE RECOGNIZE THE PITCH OF SOUND
    THE THEORY THAT LINKS THE PITCH WE HEAR WITH THE PLACE WHERE THE COCHLEA'S MEMBRANE IS STIMULATED.
  33. DESCRIBE THE FREQUENCY THEORY PERTAINING TO HOW WE RECOGNIZE THE PITCH OF A SOUND.
    THE THEORY THAT THE RATE OF NERVE IMPULSES TRAVELING UP THE AUDITORY NERVE MATCHES THE FREQUENCY OF A TONE, THUS ENABLING US TO SENSE IT'S PITCH.
  34. HOW DO WE DETERMINE THE LOCATION OF A SOUND?
    SOUND HITS ONE EAR BEFORE THE OTHER SO WE ARE ABLE TO PROCESS THAT INFO WITH A JND OF .000027 SECONDS.
  35. WHAT'S CONDUCTION HEARING LOSS?
    HEARING LOSS CAUSED BY DAMAGE TO THE MECHANICAL SYSTEM THAT CONDUCTS SOUND WAVES TO THE COCHLEA.
  36. WHAT'S SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS?
    HEARING LOSS CAUSED BY DAMAGE TO THE COCHLEA'S RECEPTOR CELLS OR TO THE AUDITORY NERVES; ALSO CALLED NERVE DEAFNESS
  37. WHAT'S A COCHLEAR IMPLANT?
    A DEVICE FOR CONVERTING SOUNDS INTO ELECTRICAL SIGNALS AND STIMULATING THE AUDITORY NERVE THROUGH ELECTRODES THREADED INTO THE COCHLEA.
  38. WHAT'S THE GATE CONTROL THEORY?
    THE THEORY THAT THE SPINAL CORD CONTAINS A NEUROLOGICAL GATE THAT BLOCKS PAIN SIGNALS OR PASSES THEM ONTO THE BRAIN. THE GATE IS OPENED BY THE ACTIVITY OF PAIN SIGNALS TRAVELING UP SMALL NERVE FIBERS AND IS CLOSED BY ACTIVITY IN LARGER FIBERS OR BY INFORMATION COMING FROM THE BRAIN.
  39. WHATS SENSORY INTERACTION?
    THE PRINCIPAL THAT ONE SENSE MAY INFLUENCE ANOTHER, AS WHEN THE SMELL OF FOOD INFLUENCES ITS TASTE.
  40. WHAT'S KINESTHESIS?
    THE SYSTEM FOR SENSING THE POSITION AND MOVEMENT OF INDIVIDUAL BODY PARTS.
  41. WHATS VESTIBULAR SENSE
    THE SENSE OF BODY MOVEMENT AND POSITION, INCLUDING THE SENSE OF BALANCE.
  42. WHATS ESP SHORT FOR?
    EXTRASENSORY PERCEPTION
  43. WHAT IS ESP?
    THE CONTROVERSIAL CLAIM THAT PERCEPTION CAN OCCUR APART FROM SENSORY INPUT. INCLUDES TELEPATHY, CLAIRVOYANCE, AND PRECOGNITION
  44. WHATS PARAPSYCHOLOGY?
    THE STUDY OF PARANORMAL PHENOMENA, INCLUDING ESP AND PSYCHOKINESIS.
  45. GIVE EXAMPLE OF TELEPATHY
    READING SOMEONE ELSE'S MIND
  46. GIVE EXAMPLE OF CLAIRVOYANCE
    SENSING A FRIEND'S HOUSE IS ON FIRE
  47. GIVE EXAMPLE OF PRECOGNITION
    PERCIEVING FUTURE EVENTS SUCH AS SPORTS GAME OUTCOME
  48. PERCEPTUAL ADAPTATION
    IN VISION, THE ABILITY TO ADJUST TO AN ARTIFICIALLY DISPLACED OR EVEN INVERTED VISUAL FIELD.
  49. PERCEPTUAL SET
    A MENTAL PREDISPOSITION TO PERCEIVE ONE THING AND NOT ANOTHER.
  50. HUMAN FACTORS PSYCHOLOGY
    A BRANCH OF PSYCHOLOGY THAT EXPLORES HOW PEOPLE AND MACHINES INTERACT AND HOW MACHINES AND PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTS CAN BE MADE SAFE AND EASY TO USE.
  51. GESTALT PRINCIPALS: FIGURE GROUND
    YOUR EXPERIENCE OF AUTOMATICALLY IDENTIFYING A FIGURE, WHICH HAS MORE DETAIL, STANDING OUT AGAINST A BACKGROUND, WHICH HAS LESS DETAIL, IS CALLED THE FIGURE-GROUND.
  52. GESTALT PRINCIPALS: SIMILARITY
    WE TEND TO GROUP ELEMENTS TOGETHER THAT APPEAR SIMILAR, IN THIS CASE, WE GROUP THE BLACK CIRCLES.
  53. GESTALT PRINCIPALS: CLOSURE
    WE HAVE A TENDANCY TO FILL IN ANY MISSING PARTS OF A FIGURE AND SEE THE FIGURE AS COMPLETE.
  54. GESTALT PRINCIPALS: PROXIMITY
    WE TEND TO GROUP OBJECTS THAT A PHYSICALLY CLOSE TO EACH OTHER.
  55. GESTALT PRINCIPALS: SIMPLICITY
    WE TEND TO ORGANIZE STIMULI IN THE SIMPLEST WAY POSSIBLE
  56. GESTALT PRINCIPALS: CONTINUITY
    WE TEND TO PERCIEVE A SERIES OF POINTS OR LINES ALONG A SMOOTH OR CONTINUOUS PATH.

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