BIO Third Test
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What are the two types of muscle fibers?
Slow and fast
What is the differnce in process to make slow atp fibers and fast atp fibers.
Slow atp fibers=aerobic=use oxygen
fast fibers=anaerobic=no oxygen
What produces 38 ATP molecules from one glucose molecule?
What is oxidation?
It is the loss of electrons.
What is reduction?
It is the gain of electrons.
What is the formula for cellular respiration?
What are the three stages of cellular respiration in order?
- Stage 1: Glycolysis
- Stage 2: The citric acid cycle
- Stage 3: Oxidative phosphorylation
What enters the first stage of cellular respiration, Glycolysis?
Glucose a six carbon molecule enters glycolysis.
What are the products of the first stage of cellular respiration, Glycolysis?
Two molecules of a three-carbon compound called pyruvate is produced.
Where does the first stage of cellular respiration, glycolysis, occur?
It occurs in the cytoplasm.
What enters the second stage of cellular respiration, The citric acid cycle.
pyruvate enters at this level and is broken down into carbon dioxide.
What are the products of the second stage of cellular respiration, the citric acid cycle.
The citric acid cycle produces electrons for the third stage.
Where does the second stage of the cellular respiration occur, the citric acid cycle?
The citric acid cycle occurs in the mitochondria.
What enters the third stage of cellular respiration, Oxidative phosphorylation?
In the third level of cellular respiration electrons enter and are shttled through the electron transport chain.
What are the products of the third stage of cellular respiration, Oxidative phosphorylation?
ATP is generated through oxidative phosphorylation associated with chemiosmosis.
Where does the third stage of cellular respiration occur, oxidative phosphorylation?
the third stage of cellular respiration occurs in mitochondrion membrane.
What happens in the substrate-level of phosphorylation?
Enzymes transfers a phosphate group from a substrate molecule to ADP, forming ATP.
What happens in Oxidative phosphorylation?
It involves electron transport and chemiosmosis and requires an adequate supply of oxygen.
At what stage does Substrate level phosphorylation occur?
It occurs in the first stage.
At what stage does oxidative phosphorylation occur?
It occurs in the second stage.
What is anaerobic respiration?
It is a form of respiration that does not use oxygen but uses electrons instead.
what are the two types of fermentation?
Lactic acid fermentation and alcohol fermentation.
When do you use fermentation instead of cellular respiration?
You use fermentation when there is no oxygen present.
What is lactic acid fermentation?
biological process by which sugars such as glucose, fructose, andsucrose, are converted into cellular energy and the metabolic byproductlactate
what is alcohol fermentattion?
is a biological process in which sugars such asglucose, fructose, andsucrose are converted into cellular energy and thereby produce ethanoland carbon dioxide as metabolic waste products
what is photosynthesis?
It is the process that converts solar energy into chemical energy.
What are autotrophs?
They sustain themselves without eating anything derived from other organisms.
What are photoautotrophs?
Almost all plants are photoautotrophs. They use the energy of sunlight to make oranic molecules from water and carbon dioxide.
what are heterotrophs?
They are the consumers of the biosphere.
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