cultural and legal considerations - pharmacology
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Respect for autonomy is
where patient rights originated. each patient has the right to make their own decisions.
vulnerable populations include
the young and the elderly and the disabled, any person that may not have the full ability to understand choices.
preventing harm, removing harm, or doing good
doing no harm
beneficience and nonmaleficience together make the
court cases of malpractice or negligence are based on these principles:
- respect for autonomy: protectoin of human subjects in research studies and informed consent.
- did the nurse do any harm
- did the nurse remove the client from actual or potential harm
- was actual harm produced by an action or lack of action
- These questions need to be answered when a medication error is made.
A medication error is
a preventable event that may cause harm when the medication is in control of the healthcare professional, patient or consumer.
what do you do if there is a medication error?
document and inform
malpractice lawyers look for what 3 things
- the status of the client prior to the error
- how the error occured and was it preventable
- the status of the client after the error. Was any harm actually done?
How long does a nurse have to administer a STAT drug by law?
How can errors be prevented?
checking and asking for allergies, verifying orders with pills 3 times, check in on the patient after its been taken.
Name alert is
an alert on the medical records stating that there's another person on the floor with the same or similiar name
Can a nurse take two clients with the same name
pharmacy now has to put both the _______ and the _______ on the drug.
the generic and brand name
common medications include
- wrong patient
- wrong dose or strength of solution
- wrong medication
- wrong route
- not recognizing adverse side effects which can affect the clients health for a long time. "not noticing a change in staturs" is the legal term
Emily's law requires
pharmacists and pharmacy techs to be licensed and registered.
loss of license or temporary suspension occurs
until an appeal is made to the licensing board and both sides are heard.
a sentinel event is
a serious event ehich can make a hospital pay a fine or lose licensure.
a side effect is
the nearly unavoidable secondary drug effect that occurs at a therapeutic dose. These have to be reported if serious to the patient.
most common side effects are
hives, rashes, nausea, and vomiting
things that need to be documented or reported on medications include:
adverse effects or adverse drug reaction and allergic reaction.
an adverse effect or adverse drug reaction is
a noxious, unintended, or undersired effect that occured at a normal dose.
an allergic reaction is
an autoimmune response to the drug, tends to be worse with larger doses or repeated doses. Less than 10% of adverse drug reactions are an allergic reaction.
cultural factors that affect drug compliance and usage include:
- religious beliefs
- homeopathic beliefs
- philosophy such as ying and yang or hot and cold therapies
- social norm's of the originating society
- family beliefs and practices
- dietary restrictions and beliefs
- economic status
religious beliefs include
- orthodox jews and muslims can not eat pork, and many consider porcine insulin, heart valves to be unclean. insulin is now made by cloning human insulin inside E-coli
- some do not agree to transfusion of blood or products made from blood. seventh day adventists or jehova witnesses.
- some cultures prefer homepathic or herbal remedies rather then western medicines.
- hands on healing
- some work and some don't
homeopathic beliefs include:
based on a little bit of toxic substance will not kill you but will make your immune system stronger.
hot and cold therapy include
using heat and cold to cure the body. If the person is hot (yang) then cold (ying) therapies are used to balance the body.
putting a hard boiled egg under the bed to absorb evil is a form of
macumba or black magic
will seek out herbalists or priests for advice before using western medicines. New age americans are using vitamins and antioxidens to prevent cancer.
In America ____ of the population are currently uninsured
Which populations have less resources and poorer care?
african americans and latinos
Part D medicare is
a government instilled program in 2008 that allowed elderly to afford their medications when on a fixed budget.
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