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sender receiver model
- Source- designates the originator of the message
- Message- is the stimulus that the source transmits to the receiver
- Channel- the means by which the message is conveyed from source to receiver
- Receiver- it’s the destination of the message.
- Noise- any stimulus that inhibits the receiver’s accurate reception of a given message.
- Feedback- can either be positive or negative
characteristics of communication (6 in the book)
- Communication is a symbolic process
- Communication is a social process
- Communication involves individual interpretation
- Communication involves shared meaning
- Communication occurs in a context
Intentionality of communication
Can we not, not communicate?
functions of communication
Cicero: -inform -persuade -entertainand +stimulate
The reasons for creating theories
- To describe-hypothesis- an educated guess-explain- how or why does something happen?
- Explainations will eventually lead to predictions which is whythey are so important-
- control- By knowing and undertanding, you can adapt yourcommunication and behaviors in a way that will help you achieveyour desired result.
four functions of theories
- -Organize Experience-
- Extend Knowledge-
- Perform an Anticipatory Function-
- Stimulate and Guide Further Research
how are theories tested?
- Form hypotheses-
- Design appropriate methods of observing the variables and relationships described by the theory- Conduct observations or experiments-
- Interpret results
what is necessary for effective theories?
- - Logical-
- Consistent with Accepted Facts-
what is desirable for effective theories?
- Consistent with related theories-
- Pleasing to the mind
Measused with numbers, graphs etc.. (Covering Laws Persepective)
focus groups, interviews, how and why questionsasked. (Human Action)
-Covering Laws Perspective
- Focus on cause and effect, discovering laws that transend timeand space.
- Developed from logical positivism, a theoreticalparadigm that asserts the true nature of reality is contained inregular, observable, natural patterns.
- Looks for laws that cover communication settings in terms ofcause and effect relationships
-Covering Laws Perspective - Strengths
- Spurs further research
-Covering Laws Perspective - Weaknesses
- De-emphasizes human choice
- Predicts group, not individual behavior
- Can oversimplify communication
Human Action Perspective
- The HAP was developed to counteract some of the extremefollowers of the covering laws perspective. It concludes thatstudying human behavior is much different than studyingscientific reactions because every human is different and has adifferent perception of things.
- Studies motives.
Human Action Perspective - Strengths
- Strong emphasis on free choice
- Strong insights into why people behave the way they do
Human Action Perspective - Weaknesses
- inability to predict the future
- Fewer empirical studies than covering laws perspective
3 positions of communication - What causes Communication?
- 1) Situationist
- 2) Trait Theorist
- 3) Interactionist
Situation primarily determines behavior
Traits primarily determine behavior. The trait view is that we seek situations which allowus to be ourselves, to behave characteristically, or to act in ways that reflect our uniqueness.
Traits and situation interact, the interaction primarily determines behavior
-Communication Apprehension Theory
- ??? the
- worksheet we did in class (example question:which of the following
- types of studies looks at our unwillingness to communicate in certain
- o Assertiveness
- o Argumentativeness
- o Hostility
- o Verbal Agressiveness
Six Fixed Action Patterns:
- Defined by Robert Chaldini-
- Commitment and Consistency
- Social proofs
6 Personality Traits
- Self Esteem
- Need for Social Approval
- How persuadable someone is
How favorably someone sees oneself. Thosewith high self esteem tend to be more sure about opinions andtherefore less persuadable.
Individuals willingness to consider belief systemsother than the ones they hold. Open-minded individuals aremore willing to consider other sets of beliefs, even if they havea strong opinion about something. Dogmatic or Close-mindedwont. These people also have a hard time separation the sourceand the source’s message.
An orientation in which someone believes thatmanipulation is a basic strategy of social influence. They thinkthat it is alright to use someones fears, doubts, etc to motivatethem. The believe that the end justifies the means.
- Exciting-Dull, Humorous-Deadly, etc.
- Conceptualized by bipolarish conflicting personality traits..
-Social Judgement Theory
predicts successful persuasion based on how it is related to the persons personal beliefs
Theory of Planned Behavior
perceived behavioral control
Elaboration Liklihood model
Central Route (direct and factual) or Peripheral route (playing on emotion)
Theory of Linguistic Relativity a.k.a. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesistwo fundamental principles:
(1) all higher levels of thought
depend on language;
(2) the structure of the language we use
influences the way we understand our environrment. -- Language influences perception
Communication Acommadation Theory:
- - Theory that examines underlying motivations andconsequences of shifts in verbal behavior.Premises central to CAT
- 1) During communication, people try to accommodate oradjust their style of speech to one another.
- 2) They do this in order to gain approval, to increasecommunication efficiency, and to maintain positive socialidentity with the person to whom they are talking.
Speech Act Theory:
We all have different utterances. It refers to a statement designed to perform some specific function. In order to understand language, you have to understand someones intentions
Functions of Non-Verbal Communication (6)
- 1)Sending Uncomfortable Messages
- 2)Forming Impressions
- 3)Making Relationships Clear
- 4)Regulating Interaction
- 5)Influencing People
- 6)Reinforcing and Modifying Verbal Messages
Eye contact and body language canindicate our desire to communicate. During interpersonalcommunication, non-verbal cues are used to regulate turn-taking, show interest and emotion, and send other messages.
Reinforcing and Modifying Verbal Messages
Verbal and non-verbal messages work together to create the wholemessage. The fish was this big, etc.
Expectancy Violations Theory
Each society and context has its norms. When those expectations are brokenit causes arousal. When coming from someone of highimportance, attractive, etc, we often appreciate and accept theviolation. It is the opposite if the violator is of low perceive value.
Cognitive Valence Theory:
Maintains that when a person in an interaction perceives an increase in immediacy behaviors “cognitive schemata” are activated. Cognitive schemata are expectations about the consequences of behaving in a certain way that allow people to interpret, explain, and act upon information.
- Kinesics- body movements, gestures
- Proxemics- space between people
- Chroneomics- the use of time
- Objectics- accessories, things we put on ourselves like clothes
- Olfactics- Smell
- Haptics- touch
8 Interpersonal theories
- 1. Uncertainty Reduction Theory
- 2. Predicted Outcome Value Theory
- 3. Interpersonal Goal Oriented Theory of Attraction
- 4. Reinforcement Theory
- 5. Similarity and Interpersonal Attraction
- 6. Theory of Interpersonal Communication Motives
- 7. Constructivism
- 8. Coordinated Management of Meaning
Uncertainty Reduction Theory
explains and predicts interpersonal communication during the beginning of an interaction. When strangers meet, they seek to reduce uncertainty about each other.
Predicted Outcome Value
POV maintains that the need to maximize positive outcomes is central to the process of developing relationships. Predicted positive rewards should influence a person’s decision to seek, avoid, or restrict further communication.
we like and are attracted to those people who reward us.
we are attractd to those people that we view as similar to ourselves.
Theory of Interpersonal Communication Motives
identifies reasons (or motives) for why people initiate and engage in interpersonal communication. Those motives influence how people communicate and how they are likely to respond to others.
We live in a world of symbols. We construct reality by interpreting the symbols we encounter; we create meaning with their constructions to make sense of the world.
Coordinated Management of Meaning
- This is one of the most fully developed and researched human action theories. Five propositions about CMM:
- (1) Human beings create systems of
- meaning and order even where there none
- (2) Human beings organize
- meanings hierarchically
- (3) Human beings organize meaning temporally
- (4) Individuals’ systems of meaning are to some extent idiosyncratic
- (5) The behavior of individuals is uninterpretable except in the context of
- larger systems.