Anthropology 101 Exam 2.txt

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  1. Evolution
    Change in allele frequency in a population from one generation to the next
  2. Microevolution
    Small scale, observable changes in a few generations
  3. Macroevolution
    Large scale changes, speciation
  4. Mechanisms of Evolution
    Mutation (Point Mutations, Frameshift mutations), Gene Flow, Genetic Drift (Founder Effect), Natural Selection (Sickle-Cell Anemia and malaria)
  5. Population
    A group of potentially interbreeding individuals
  6. Gene Pool
    Total complement of alleles in a population
  7. Mutation
    The only way to get new alleles to get into a species (Point mutation, frameshift mutation, chromosomal mutation, gene flow)
  8. Point Mutation
    Single base substitution
  9. Frameshift Mutation
    Insertion, deletion
  10. Gene Flow
    Movement of alleles between populations (migration) (ex: island model)
  11. Balanced Polymorphism
    Maintenance of 2 or more alleles in a reasonable frequency because of a selective advantage for the heterozygote
  12. 7 main levels of taxonomy
    Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
  13. TAXONOMY: Kingdom
    Animalia - move ingest food
  14. TAXONOMY: Phylum
    Chordota - notochord, gill slits
  15. TAXONOMY: Class
    Mammalia - nurse young (monotremes = egg-laying mammals, marsupials = pouched mammals)
  16. TAXONOMY: Order
    Primates (prosimians, monkeys, apes, humans)
  17. TAXONOMY: Family
    Hominidee (great apes, humans)
  18. TAXONOMY: Genus
  19. TAXONOMY: Species
  20. Homology
    Similarity in structure due to a common evolutionary descent
  21. Homoplasy
    Similarity in structure for a reason other than common evolutionary descent
  22. Phylogenetic trees (phylogenes)
    Graphical representation of the evolutionary relationships of a taxonomic group
  23. Ancestral Trait
    A trait that is found among all members of the group under study
  24. Shared Derived Traits
    A trait found among a subset of the group under study not found in the common ancestor
  25. Uniquely Derived Traits
    A trait that is found only within 1 group included in the study
  26. Phenetics (Evolutionary Systematics)
    Use as many traits as possible - share most traits = most closely related
  27. Cladistics
    Use a small number of evolutionary important traits
  28. Species
    A group of reproductively isolated organisms
  29. Biological species concept
    Group of organisms who can mate and produce viable and fertile offspring
  30. Mate Recognition Species Concept
    Group of organisms who will recognize each other in the wild as potential mates
  31. Morphological Species Concept
    Group of organisms who share an over-whelming number of traits in common
  32. Adaptive Radiations
    Increase in the number and diversity of a group of related species
  33. Locomotor Patterns
    Quadrapedality, Vertical climbers and leapers, Brachiators, Slow Quadrumanous Climbers, Knuckle-walker, Bipeds
  34. LOCOMOTOR PATTERN: Quadrapedality
    Terrestrial (Macaques, Baboon), Arboreal (Saki, Spider monkeys)
  35. LOCOMOTOR PATTERN: Vertical climbers and leapers
    Lemurs, galago
  36. LOCOMOTOR PATTERN: Brachiators
    Gibbons/siamangs (spider monkeys)
  37. LOCOMOTOR PATTERN: Slow Quadrumanous Climbers
    Orangutans, lorises
  38. LOCOMOTOR PATTERN: Knuckle-walker
    Chimpanzee, Gorilla
  40. Teeth
    Incisors, Canines (cuspids), Premolar (bicuspids), Molar (3-7 cusps)
  41. Dental Formula
    2:1:2:3 (OW Monkeys, Apes and Humans) (NW Monkeys)
  42. - Geologic Time � know the different eras, periods and epochs
  43. - Characteristics of Primates (why might primates have these characteristics)
  44. - Differences between prosimians and anthropoids
  45. - Platyrhines (NW monkeys) and Catarrhines (OW Monkeys, Apes and Humans) � know the differences and the members of each group
  46. - Know the variability among the Hominoids and the features common to them. Also know the specifics about the great apes.
  47. - Understand the main concepts from the movie �Monkey in the Mirror� �Dominance Hierarchies, Primate intelligence, Primate culture
  48. - Primate origins � probably in Paleocene � but no definite so we cannot say that � Remember
    the Pleisiadipiforms
  49. - Eocene � (1st Prosimians � Omomyoids, Adapoids), Oligocene (1st Anthropoids � Fayum, Agyptopithecus), Miocene (1stHominoids)
  50. - Miocene � Dental Apes � (Y-5 molar, parallel tooth rows, etc�) � include Proconsul,
    Moratopithecus, Kenyapithecus - Also have Sivapithecus as ancestral to Orangutans
  51. - Paleoanthropology � multidisciplinary
  52. - Dating Methods � Absolute vs Relative
  53. - Relative � Stratigraphy (uses superposition), Biostratigraphy (index fossils), Fluorine Analysis (Piltdown Hoax) and Paleomagnetism (Magnetic north pole)
  54. - Absolute- Potassium Argon ( Potassium 40 decays into Argon 40 at a known rate (halflife of 1.3by), take a volcanic rock and measure the amount of Argon 40 captured within it and
    • compare it to the amount of Potassium, using a formula that includes the half-life you can
    • determine when that rock was last part of a volcanic eruption.
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Anthropology 101 Exam 2.txt
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