Biochapter4[1].txt

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cfree15
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Biochapter4[1].txt
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2011-10-27 14:57:27
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Bio Cell types
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BIO 191
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  1. Fractionation
    Take whole cell and divide it
  2. Microscopy has two conponets
    • 1. Resolution
    • 2. Magnification
  3. Resolution
    Minimum distance two points can be apart and still be distinguished as two separate pts. The smaller the better.
  4. Magnification
    Ratio between what we see and what were looking at. Image vs. What were looking at/ higher magnification the more we see.
  5. Light microscope
    Compund microscopes (multiple lenses), utilizes light for illumination.
  6. What is the resolution of light
    200nm - limited by wavelengths
  7. Wet mount
    Drop containing microorganism placed on slides.
  8. Smear
    Sample containing microbes/ media onto the slides. Heat fixed (kills bacteria)
  9. Staining
    Stains bind to certain cellular structures and give it color.
  10. There a two type of Electron Microscopes
    • 1. transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
    • - heavy metal
    • - electon (some) scattered, w/o pass through to form an image.
    • 2. scanning
    • - heavy metal coated
    • -scan to make 3D
  11. Why are cells small
    • The more surface area the better. When size increase volume increases rapidly.
    • s=4(pie)r^2
    • ration s/v= 4(p)^2/(4/3)(p)r^3=3/r
    • V=4/3(p)r^2
  12. What do cells have in common.
    • Genetic material
    • - single circular molecules in prokaryotes
    • -double helix (nucleus in eukaryotes)
    • Cytoplasm- fills cell interior
    • plasma membrane- encloses the cell
    • ribosomes- carry out protein synthesis
  13. -Simple cell structures- No nucleus
    - lack a membrane enclosed nucleus
    - 2 groups (bacteria and Archea)
    -Archea (related to eukaryotes) and bacteria are grouped together
    Prokaryotic Cell
  14. Shapes of Bacteria
    • Bacillus (rod)
    • Coccus (sphere)
    • Spirillum (spiral)
  15. Phylogenetic Tree of life 3 domains
    • Bacteria
    • archaea
    • Eucarya
  16. Simples organism of the bacteria cell
    • Cytoplasm contains DNA, ribosomes have granules, vesticles & os surronded by plasma membrane.
    • - DNA is circular
    • - no compartments
    • - Cell Walls
  17. What do Prokaryotic DNA look like?
    • -Circular
    • - double helix
    • -plasmid of DNA (small circular stretches of DNA)
  18. What strucutures are located on the outside of the Prokaryotic DNA?
    • -Cell wall- support and protections
    • - Glycocalyx (capsule)- trap h20, protection
    • - appedndages- pili (attatchment), flagella (locomotion)
  19. Prokaryotic Cell move how?
    Flagella- thread like structure protruding from the cell
  20. What is Flagella?
    Complex is a nano-scale motor which allow bacteria to move.
  21. Chemotaxis
    • - Movement towards attraction or away from repellants
    • - some bacteria exhibit phototaxis
    • (movement towards and away lights)
  22. Cell wall (prokaryote)
    • 1. maintain cell shape
    • 2. prevents cell from bursting
    • - Bacteria have walls made of peptidoglycon (murein)- polymermade of repeating sugar units linked to short peptides.
  23. Gram Positive bacteria
    Thick Layer of peptodglycon
  24. Gram Negative
    • Thinner layer of peptidoglycon but more complex cell wall
    • _ also have lipopoly saccharid layer
  25. Gram Staining
    • - Insoluble crystal violent complex is formed inside cells.
    • Alchol dehdrates pores in thick gram positive wall
    • alchols penetrates lipid rich layers of gram negative cells extract dye.
  26. PG of Grahm positive cell can be digestive by?
    • Enzymes lysozome can degrade cell wall in gram positive cell.
    • After cell wall is degraded, h20 enters the cell- cell burst (lysis).
  27. Peptidoglycon
    • - only in bacteria
    • - not in Archea and Eukaryotes
    • - diffrent versions
  28. Eukaryotic cell
    • Dna inside nuclues
    • compartmentalized
    • organelles
  29. Organelles
    Sub cellular structure or membrane bonded compartment w/ its own function/ structure.
  30. Proteome
    • Determines characteris and function and structure of a cell
    • - diffrent from cancerous cells
  31. Genome
    All genes (DNA sequence) of an organism
  32. Proteome is made of what?
    Set of all proteins
  33. Cytosol
    Region of Eurkayotic cell outside the cell oraganelles inside plasma membrane and has many metabolic activities.
  34. cytoplasm
    • everything in plasma membrane
    • - cytosol-endomembrane system and the semiautonomous organelle
  35. Catabolism
    Breakdown of molecules
  36. Anabolism
    small - big of synthesis of cellular molecules and marcomolecules
  37. Nucleus
    Repository for genetic material
  38. Nucleolus
    • Region of ribosome RNA synthesis
    • - nuclear membrane is made of 2 phospholipids bilayers
    • - nuclear pores play a role of importing and exporting protein/RNA.
  39. Chromosome
    • -Linear stretch of DNA (divided)
    • - exist of strands of chromatin except cell division
    • - associated w/ histones
    • - complex organiztion DNA packed
  40. Endomembrane system
    • - network of membranes: nuclear, ER, GA, lysosomes and vacuoles, plasma membrane.
    • - Connected to eachother or pass material by vesicles
    • -compartmentalized cells, channeling pasage of molecules through cells interior.
    • - rough and smooth ER
  41. Rough ER
    • Studded with ribosomes
    • site of protein synthesis and scretion
    • Glycosylation of some proteins
  42. Smooth ER
    • Lack ribosomes
    • site of detoxication
    • synthesis and modification of lipids (hormones/chromosomes)
  43. Ribosomes
    • Rna complexes composed of two subunits that join and attach to messenger RNA
    • site of protein synthesis
    • assembled in nuclioli protein and rna catalytic roles
    • diffrent in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
  44. Golgi Apparatus
    • Site of modification, sorting and secretion of lipids and proteins
    • stack of flattened membrande- bound compartments
    • not continious with ER
    • vesicles transport material between stacks
  45. Lysosomes
    • Recycle worn out organelles through endocytosis
    • contain acid hydrolases that perform hydrolysis
    • diffrent types of acid hydrolases to break down proteins, carbs and nucleic acid and lipids
  46. Hydrolases
    Enzymes which hydrolize molecules
  47. vacuoles
    • Function varies
    • diffrent with cell types and environmental condition
  48. Central Vacuoles
    Storage and support in plants
  49. contractile vacuoles
    in protist for expelling excess water
  50. phagocytic vacuoles
    protists and white blood cells for degradtion
  51. Plasma membrane
    • Boundary between cell and extracellular environment
    • membrane transport in an d out fo cell
    • selectively permeable
    • cells signaling using receptors
    • cell adhension
  52. Cytoskelton
    • Network of 3 ortein filaments
    • 1. microtubules
    • 2. intermediate filaments
    • 3. actin filaments
  53. Microtubules
    • Dynamic instability
    • Centrosome/ microtubule- organiztion center in animal
  54. Intermediate Filaments
    Stable than microtublues and actin fillament
  55. Actin Filament
    Microfilaments
  56. Motor Proteins
    ATP energy source for movement
  57. Three domains for motor protein
    Head Hinge and Tail
  58. Diffrent Movements for Motor Proteins
    • 1. Move cargo
    • 2. remain in place, filament moves
    • 3. attempting to "walk" exerts a force that causes the filament to bend.
  59. Cilia
    • Short
    • Cover whole surface
  60. Cilia and Flagella
    • same internal structure
    • microtubules, dyen and axoneme
  61. Flagella
    • long
    • single/paired
  62. Mitochondria
    • Exterior and interior membrane
    • inner membrane and inter membrane space
    • oxidation furing metabolism
    • DNA but cannot reproduce independtinly
    • ATP Synthesis role
  63. Chloroplast
    • Photosynthesis
    • found in all species of plants and algae
    • two membrane around them
    • thrid membran (thylakoid) forms flattened tubules that stack to form a granum.
  64. Mitochondria And Chloroplast have 2 traits similar to bacteria
    • 1. Have own DNA
    • Circle double helix
    • own ribosomes (bacteria like)
    • similar to bacterial chromosomes
    • 2. reproduce bia binary fission
  65. Endosymbiosis
    Originated by engfulfed prokaryotes provided hosts with advantages associated with specilized metabolic activites.
  66. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are derived from what ancient symbiotic relationships are?
    • Endosymbiosis- smaller species lies inside a larger species
    • genes of mitochondria and cholorplasts similar to bacteria genes
    • lost most of their genes through transfer to nucleus
  67. evidence of endosymbiotic theory
    • 1. ribosomes of prokaryotic origin
    • 2. dna is circular
    • symbiosis between protozoa and prokaryotes
  68. Peroxisomes
    • found in eukaryotic cells
    • catalyze certain chemical reactions- break down molecules by removing hydrogen or adding oxygen
    • reaction by-product is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
    • catalase breaks down H2O2 w/o forming dangerous free radicals
    • prevent harm
  69. Biological membrane
    • Phospholipid bilayer- amphipathic (hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tails)
    • Protein embedded in membrane
    • (intergral and peripheal)
  70. Memabranes are selectively permeable to ensure?
    • Essential molecules enter
    • metabolic intermediates remain
    • wast producs exit
  71. Phospholipid bilayer is a barrier by what?
    • Hydrophobic interior serves as a barrier to hydrophilic molecules
    • solutes vary in their rates of penetration
  72. Transmembrane gradient
    Concentration of a solute is higher on one side of a membrane than the other
  73. Ion electrochemical gradient
    Electral and chemical gradient
  74. What are three Passive transports and does it require energy?
    • No energy
    • Diffusion
    • passive diffusion
    • Faciliated diffusion
  75. Diffusion
    net movement of substances from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration
  76. Passive diffusion
    Solute through a membrane w/o transport protein
  77. faciliated diffusion
    diffusion of a solute through a membrane with the aid of transport protein
  78. Two types of diffusion across the membrane?
    • 1. passive
    • 2. facilitated
  79. Isotonic
    • Equal water and solute concentration
    • (h2
  80. Hypertonic
    Solute concentration is higher (h20 content low on one side)
  81. Hypotonic
    Solute concentration is lower (h20 con. higher on one side)
  82. Osmosis
    • water diffuses through the membrane from an high h20 to low h20.
    • Ifs solute cant move, water movement makes cell shrin/swell as water leaves/enter the cell.
    • osmotic pressure
  83. Animal cells must balance what solute to maintain size and shape?
    • Intracellular
    • extracellular
  84. What prevent major changes to plants cell size?
    Cell wall
  85. Turgor Pressure
  86. Plasmolysis
  87. What enables biological membrane to be selectively permeable?
    transport proteins
  88. Channels
    Form an open passesageway for direct diffusion of Ion/molecules towards membranes.
  89. ion Channels
    • Import transmitting nerve cell signals
    • neurotoxins block ion channel (snake,Scorpion)
    • Lidocanie and Nococaine are Ion channel blockers
    • drug targets
  90. Transporter
    • Conformation change transports solute
    • uptake of organic molecules (sugar amino acids)
    • Key role is to export
  91. Uniporter
    Single Molecule or ion
  92. Symporter/Contransporter
    2 or more ions or molecules transported in same direction
  93. Antiporter
    2 or more ions or molecules transported in opposite directions
  94. What are the 3 transporter types?
    • Uniporter
    • Anitporter
    • Symporter/contronsporter
  95. Active transport
    • against the gradient
    • requires energy
  96. Primary active transport
    Directly use energty to transport solute
  97. secondary active transport
    Use energy stored in gradient of a diffrent molecules
  98. pump
    Couples and changes to energy source
  99. Atp driven pump
    • htp hydrolosis
    • uniporter,symportermantiporters
    • active transports
  100. Exocytosis
    Material inside the cell, packed into vesicles and is excreted into extracellular medium
  101. Endocytosis
    Plamsa membrane invaginates or folds in to form a vesicle that brings substances into the cell
  102. Receptor
    Mediated Endocytosis
  103. Pinocytosis
    Cell drinking
  104. Phagocytosis
    Engulfs a particle
  105. sodium and potassium ATPase
    • Actively transport Na and K against their gradients by using the energy from ATP hydrolysis
    • 3 NA exported for 2 K imported into cell
    • -anitporter
    • electrogenic pump- export 1 net positive charge.

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