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Take whole cell and divide it
Microscopy has two conponets
- 1. Resolution
- 2. Magnification
Minimum distance two points can be apart and still be distinguished as two separate pts. The smaller the better.
Ratio between what we see and what were looking at. Image vs. What were looking at/ higher magnification the more we see.
Compund microscopes (multiple lenses), utilizes light for illumination.
What is the resolution of light
200nm - limited by wavelengths
Drop containing microorganism placed on slides.
Sample containing microbes/ media onto the slides. Heat fixed (kills bacteria)
Stains bind to certain cellular structures and give it color.
There a two type of Electron Microscopes
- 1. transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
- - heavy metal
- - electon (some) scattered, w/o pass through to form an image.
- 2. scanning
- - heavy metal coated
- -scan to make 3D
Why are cells small
- The more surface area the better. When size increase volume increases rapidly.
- ration s/v= 4(p)^2/(4/3)(p)r^3=3/r
What do cells have in common.
- Genetic material
- - single circular molecules in prokaryotes
- -double helix (nucleus in eukaryotes)
- Cytoplasm- fills cell interior
- plasma membrane- encloses the cell
- ribosomes- carry out protein synthesis
-Simple cell structures- No nucleus
- lack a membrane enclosed nucleus
- 2 groups (bacteria and Archea)
-Archea (related to eukaryotes) and bacteria are grouped together
Shapes of Bacteria
- Bacillus (rod)
- Coccus (sphere)
- Spirillum (spiral)
Phylogenetic Tree of life 3 domains
Simples organism of the bacteria cell
- Cytoplasm contains DNA, ribosomes have granules, vesticles & os surronded by plasma membrane.
- - DNA is circular
- - no compartments
- - Cell Walls
What do Prokaryotic DNA look like?
- - double helix
- -plasmid of DNA (small circular stretches of DNA)
What strucutures are located on the outside of the Prokaryotic DNA?
- -Cell wall- support and protections
- - Glycocalyx (capsule)- trap h20, protection
- - appedndages- pili (attatchment), flagella (locomotion)
Prokaryotic Cell move how?
Flagella- thread like structure protruding from the cell
What is Flagella?
Complex is a nano-scale motor which allow bacteria to move.
- - Movement towards attraction or away from repellants
- - some bacteria exhibit phototaxis
- (movement towards and away lights)
Cell wall (prokaryote)
- 1. maintain cell shape
- 2. prevents cell from bursting
- - Bacteria have walls made of peptidoglycon (murein)- polymermade of repeating sugar units linked to short peptides.
Gram Positive bacteria
Thick Layer of peptodglycon
- Thinner layer of peptidoglycon but more complex cell wall
- _ also have lipopoly saccharid layer
- - Insoluble crystal violent complex is formed inside cells.
- Alchol dehdrates pores in thick gram positive wall
- alchols penetrates lipid rich layers of gram negative cells extract dye.
PG of Grahm positive cell can be digestive by?
- Enzymes lysozome can degrade cell wall in gram positive cell.
- After cell wall is degraded, h20 enters the cell- cell burst (lysis).
- - only in bacteria
- - not in Archea and Eukaryotes
- - diffrent versions
- Dna inside nuclues
Sub cellular structure or membrane bonded compartment w/ its own function/ structure.
- Determines characteris and function and structure of a cell
- - diffrent from cancerous cells
All genes (DNA sequence) of an organism
Proteome is made of what?
Set of all proteins
Region of Eurkayotic cell outside the cell oraganelles inside plasma membrane and has many metabolic activities.
- everything in plasma membrane
- - cytosol-endomembrane system and the semiautonomous organelle
Breakdown of molecules
small - big of synthesis of cellular molecules and marcomolecules
Repository for genetic material
- Region of ribosome RNA synthesis
- - nuclear membrane is made of 2 phospholipids bilayers
- - nuclear pores play a role of importing and exporting protein/RNA.
- -Linear stretch of DNA (divided)
- - exist of strands of chromatin except cell division
- - associated w/ histones
- - complex organiztion DNA packed
- - network of membranes: nuclear, ER, GA, lysosomes and vacuoles, plasma membrane.
- - Connected to eachother or pass material by vesicles
- -compartmentalized cells, channeling pasage of molecules through cells interior.
- - rough and smooth ER
- Studded with ribosomes
- site of protein synthesis and scretion
- Glycosylation of some proteins
- Lack ribosomes
- site of detoxication
- synthesis and modification of lipids (hormones/chromosomes)
- Rna complexes composed of two subunits that join and attach to messenger RNA
- site of protein synthesis
- assembled in nuclioli protein and rna catalytic roles
- diffrent in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
- Site of modification, sorting and secretion of lipids and proteins
- stack of flattened membrande- bound compartments
- not continious with ER
- vesicles transport material between stacks
- Recycle worn out organelles through endocytosis
- contain acid hydrolases that perform hydrolysis
- diffrent types of acid hydrolases to break down proteins, carbs and nucleic acid and lipids
Enzymes which hydrolize molecules
- Function varies
- diffrent with cell types and environmental condition
Storage and support in plants
in protist for expelling excess water
protists and white blood cells for degradtion
- Boundary between cell and extracellular environment
- membrane transport in an d out fo cell
- selectively permeable
- cells signaling using receptors
- cell adhension
- Network of 3 ortein filaments
- 1. microtubules
- 2. intermediate filaments
- 3. actin filaments
- Dynamic instability
- Centrosome/ microtubule- organiztion center in animal
Stable than microtublues and actin fillament
ATP energy source for movement
Three domains for motor protein
Head Hinge and Tail
Diffrent Movements for Motor Proteins
- 1. Move cargo
- 2. remain in place, filament moves
- 3. attempting to "walk" exerts a force that causes the filament to bend.
Cilia and Flagella
- same internal structure
- microtubules, dyen and axoneme
- Exterior and interior membrane
- inner membrane and inter membrane space
- oxidation furing metabolism
- DNA but cannot reproduce independtinly
- ATP Synthesis role
- found in all species of plants and algae
- two membrane around them
- thrid membran (thylakoid) forms flattened tubules that stack to form a granum.
Mitochondria And Chloroplast have 2 traits similar to bacteria
- 1. Have own DNA
- Circle double helix
- own ribosomes (bacteria like)
- similar to bacterial chromosomes
- 2. reproduce bia binary fission
Originated by engfulfed prokaryotes provided hosts with advantages associated with specilized metabolic activites.
Mitochondria and chloroplasts are derived from what ancient symbiotic relationships are?
- Endosymbiosis- smaller species lies inside a larger species
- genes of mitochondria and cholorplasts similar to bacteria genes
- lost most of their genes through transfer to nucleus
evidence of endosymbiotic theory
- 1. ribosomes of prokaryotic origin
- 2. dna is circular
- symbiosis between protozoa and prokaryotes
- found in eukaryotic cells
- catalyze certain chemical reactions- break down molecules by removing hydrogen or adding oxygen
- reaction by-product is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
- catalase breaks down H2O2 w/o forming dangerous free radicals
- prevent harm
- Phospholipid bilayer- amphipathic (hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tails)
- Protein embedded in membrane
- (intergral and peripheal)
Memabranes are selectively permeable to ensure?
- Essential molecules enter
- metabolic intermediates remain
- wast producs exit
Phospholipid bilayer is a barrier by what?
- Hydrophobic interior serves as a barrier to hydrophilic molecules
- solutes vary in their rates of penetration
Concentration of a solute is higher on one side of a membrane than the other
Ion electrochemical gradient
Electral and chemical gradient
What are three Passive transports and does it require energy?
- No energy
- passive diffusion
- Faciliated diffusion
net movement of substances from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration
Solute through a membrane w/o transport protein
diffusion of a solute through a membrane with the aid of transport protein
Two types of diffusion across the membrane?
- Equal water and solute concentration
Solute concentration is higher (h20 content low on one side)
Solute concentration is lower (h20 con. higher on one side)
- water diffuses through the membrane from an high h20 to low h20.
- Ifs solute cant move, water movement makes cell shrin/swell as water leaves/enter the cell.
- osmotic pressure
Animal cells must balance what solute to maintain size and shape?
What prevent major changes to plants cell size?
What enables biological membrane to be selectively permeable?
Form an open passesageway for direct diffusion of Ion/molecules towards membranes.
- Import transmitting nerve cell signals
- neurotoxins block ion channel (snake,Scorpion)
- Lidocanie and Nococaine are Ion channel blockers
- drug targets
- Conformation change transports solute
- uptake of organic molecules (sugar amino acids)
- Key role is to export
Single Molecule or ion
2 or more ions or molecules transported in same direction
2 or more ions or molecules transported in opposite directions
What are the 3 transporter types?
- against the gradient
- requires energy
Primary active transport
Directly use energty to transport solute
secondary active transport
Use energy stored in gradient of a diffrent molecules
Couples and changes to energy source
Atp driven pump
- htp hydrolosis
- active transports
Material inside the cell, packed into vesicles and is excreted into extracellular medium
Plamsa membrane invaginates or folds in to form a vesicle that brings substances into the cell
Engulfs a particle
sodium and potassium ATPase
- Actively transport Na and K against their gradients by using the energy from ATP hydrolysis
- 3 NA exported for 2 K imported into cell
- electrogenic pump- export 1 net positive charge.