vet-tech-therio-ch-6

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Author:
darlene.m.nelson
ID:
112472
Filename:
vet-tech-therio-ch-6
Updated:
2011-10-26 22:33:30
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vet tech theriogenology chapter blood groups typing set
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vet tech theriogenology chapter 6 blood groups and blood typing set
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  1. Red blood cells (Erythrocytes)
    • Antigens on surface of RBC stimulate antibody reaction:
    • - genetically determined
    • - different species have different genes and different animals within a species have different alleles so...
    • -- ... different animals can have different red cell antigens
    • - all the red cell surface antigens that arise from single alleles at a single locus belong to the same blood group
  2. Human blood groups
    • simplest
    • one gene locus with 3 alleles: A, B, O
    • Naturally occuring antibodies to "foreign" red blood cells
    • Phenotype (blood type)/Genotype/Antibodies in serum:
    • - A /AA or AO/Anti-B => universal platelet donor
    • - B /BB or BO/Anti-A
    • - AB /AB /None => universal recipient
    • - O /OO /Anti-B and Anti-A => O- is universal donor
  3. Determination of the blood group and blood type
    • called bloodtyping
    • Use reagents containing one antibody
    • test for each antigen separately
  4. Crossmatch
    • if can't do bloodtyping, then at the very least do a crossmatch
    • Minor - mix donor serum and recipient cells/whole blood
    • Major - mix recipient serum and donor cells/whole blood
    • can use EDTA, heparin, citrated plasma
    • look for agglutination (sandy appearance)
    • clear is a match
  5. Blood transfusion reactions
    • can happen even with a blood match
    • hemolytic reaction
    • anaphylaxis
    • Pyrexia (fever)
  6. Hemolytic reaction
    • lysing of red blood cells
    • signs (within minutes) include (Sheila has seen the first two):
    • - restlessness
    • - panting
    • - vocalization
    • - limb extension
    • - opisthotonus - arch back, tail up
    • treatment
    • - stop transfusion
    • - start O2 & fluids, steroids
  7. Anaphylaxis reaction
    • mast cell degranulation, histamine release
    • signs (within minutes) include:
    • - pruritus (itchiness)
    • - urticaria (redness)
    • - bronchiospasm
  8. Pyrexia (fever) reaction
    • leukocytes, platelets in donor blood are also antigenic
    • antibody response to these can cause an increase in temperature
  9. Blood groups in cats
    • simplest of domestic animals:
    • - one gene locus
    • - three alleles: A, B, AB (rare)
    • - allele A is dominant to allele B
    • -- group B animals are homozygous for the B allele (B/B)
    • - AB allele is recessive to allele A and co-dominant to allele B
    • frequency of blood types depends on geographic location and breed of cat:
    • - 95% group A - mostly DSH, DMH, DLH
    • - < 5% group B - mostly purebred
    • - < 1% AB
  10. Blood transfusions in cats
    • have naturally occuring antibodies to other blood types
    • - eg type B naturally have a high titer of anti-A antibodies
    • - important to blood type
    • > 85% of cats are type A only
    • - approx 1/3 of type A cats have circulating antibodies to type B cells (and only weakly)...
    • - ... so low risk of reaction
    • type AB lack naturally occurring antibodies
    • - can get transfusion from any donor
  11. Blood donor cat
    • clinically healthy, free of disease
    • packed cell volume (PCV) at top of normal range
    • weigh > 5 kg (11 lbs)
    • maximum donation volume 10-12 ml/kg
    • each transfusion: one unit of blood (50 mls) every 4-6 weeks
    • cat easily handled, remain unstressed (stress hormones not good for sick cat), +/- sedation
    • post - fluids, good protein meal
  12. Blood groups in dogs
    • red cell surface antigens called "dog erythrocyte antigen" DEA
    • 3 differetn blood groups
    • - antiserum only available for 5 systems
    • - eg DEA 1.1, 1.2, 1.3
    • at birth, dogs do not contain naturally occurring antibodes for the red cell surface antigens
    • DEA 1.1 has the greatest potential for antigen formation
    • ideal blood donor is DEA 1.1 negative and DEA 1.2 negative (negative => not there)
    • first transfusions are safe without type/crossmatch
    • - after that need to type/crossmatch as it will develop antibodies after first transfusions
  13. Blood donor dog
    • clinically healthy, free of disease
    • > 1 year, < 8 years old
    • weigh > 25 kg (55 lbs)
    • maximum donation volume 16 ml/kg
    • each transfusion: one unit of blood (450 mls) every 4 weeks
    • easily handled, remain unstressed (stress hormones not good for sick cat)
    • post - fluids, good protein meal
  14. Neonatal isoerythrolysis
    • RBC in newborn undergo lysis in the body because of antibodies acquired from the dam
    • fetus inherits red cell antigens from sire (as well as dam)
    • at paturition, neonatal RBC are absorbed and enter the circulation of the dam
    • dam produces antibodies to the foreign RBCs
    • antibodies get transferred to the offspring via colostrum
    • first pregnancy not a problem for both dogs & cats: dam becomes sensistized
    • subsequent offspring receive high levels of antibody to the RBCs through the colostrum
  15. Neonatal isoerythrolysis Symptoms
    • anemia
    • jaundice
    • lethargy
    • increased pulse
    • respiration rate
  16. Neonatal isoerythrolysis Treatment
    • don't let them feed from mom, fluids, possibly blood transfusion
    • can probably send bloodwork to lab to see if it is this

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