IST 205

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IST 205
2011-10-27 11:47:48
Exam study guide

all the bullshit from the study guide
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  1. Generic Process Model
    • 1. Input (data)
    • 2. Processing (processed into)
    • 3. Output (information to be)
    • 4. Storage (securely stored)
    • 5. Internal Controls (“checks and balances”)
  2. Components of a Computerized Information System
    • Network - a connecting system that permits different computers to share their information
    • People - those individuals who use the hardware and software, interface with it, or use its output
    • Hardware - a set of devices that together accept data and info, process them, and display them
    • Software - a set of programs that enables the hardware to process data
    • Procedures - the set of instructions about how to combine components of IS in order to process info and generate desired output
    • Database - a group of logically related files that store data and the associations among them
  3. Data
    elementary description of things, events, activities, and transactions that are recorded, classified, and stored but are not organized to convey specific meaning
  4. Information
    data that have been organized so that they have meaning and value to the recipient
  5. Knowledge
    • data and/or information that have been organized and processed to convey understand, experience, accumulated learning and expertise
    • information that is contextual, relevant, and actionable
    • "information in action"
  6. Internal Controls
    • Safeguard assets
    • Ensure financial statement reliability
    • Promote operational efficiency
    • Encourage compliance with management’s directives
  7. Generic Sales and Cash Receipts Process
    • 1. Take order
    • 2. Approve credit
    • 3. Fill order based on approved credit
    • 4. Ship the product
    • 5. Bill the customer and record the sale
    • 6. Collect payment from the customer
  8. Customer order
    • request for goods/services
    • Sales Process
  9. Sales order
    • document for communicating description, quantity, and related information (completely internal)
    • Sales Process
  10. Bill of lading
    written contract between carrier and seller of receipt and shipment of goods
  11. Sales invoice
  12. remittance advice
    mailed in by customer with check
  13. Generic Purchases and Cash Disbursements Process
    • 1. A department requests goods/services
    • 2. Authorize and make the purchase
    • 3. Receive the goods/services and recognize liability
    • 4. Process and record the authorized cash disbursement
  14. Receiving report
    filled out at warehouse to document what you’ve received
  15. Outsourcing
    contracting with an outside company to perform a specific function that your company was doing itself and then integrating their work back into your operation
  16. Offshoring
    relocating an entire operation, or just certain tasks, to another country
  17. Application Software
    a computer program designed to support a specific task or business process; special purpose (i.e. Photoshop, Microsoft Word)
  18. Systems Software
    controls and coordinates computer operations (i.e. programs that run the computer)
  19. Competitive Advantage
    an advantage over competitors in some measure such as cost, quality, or speed; leads to control of a market and large profits
  20. Porter’s Competitive Forces Model
    • business framework that analyzes competitiveness by recognizing 5 major forces that could endanger a company’s position
    • 1. Supplier Power
    • 2. Threat of Substitutes
    • 3. Buyer Power
    • 4. Threat of New Entrants
    • 5. Rivalry
  21. Porter’s Value Chain Model
    model that shows the primary activities that sequentially add value to the profit margin; also shows the support activities
  22. LAN - Local Area Network
    a computer network in a limited geographical area that uses wireless transmission for communication
  23. WAN - Wide Area Network
    networks that cover large geographic areas (i.e. the internet)
  24. Intranet
    a network designed to serve the internal informational needs of a single organization
  25. Extranet
    connects parts of the intranets of different organizations and allows secure communication among business partners over Internet using virtually private networks
  26. Packet Switching
    transmission technology that breaks up blocks of text; each packet of information travels independently through the network and is reassembled at the other end
  27. It is very difficult to manage data for which of the following reasons?
    Data are scattered throughout the organization.
  28. Place the following members of the data hierarchy in the correct order
    bit - byte - field - record - file - database
  29. _____ occurs when applications cannot access data associated with other applications.
    Data isolation
  30. _____ occurs when the same data are stored in many places.
    Data redundancy
  31. You have moved to a different apartment, but your electricity bill continues to go to your old address. The Post Office has a problem with its data management which is:
    Data inconsistency
  32. A ____ is a logically grouping of fields.
  33. A ______ represents a single character, such as a letter, number, or symbol.
  34. In a database, the primary key field is used to _______.
    Uniquely identify a record
  35. In a relational database, every row represents a ______.
  36. The benefits of electronic medical records include all of the following except:
    increase patients’ information security
  37. Field
    A grouping of logically related characters into a word, a small group of words, or a complete number.
  38. Record
    A grouping of logically related fields.
  39. File
    A grouping of logically related records.
  40. Database
    A group of logically related files that stores data and the associations among them.
  41. Entity
    A person, place, thing, or event about which information is maintained in a record.
  42. Attribute
    Each characteristic or quality describing a particular entity.
  43. Primary Key
    The identifier field or attribute that uniquely identifies a record.
  44. Foreign Key
    • a referential constraint between two tables
    • 3 Rules to Establishing the Foreign Key
    • 1. If 1:1, it doesn’t matter. Take primary key out of either table to establish foreign key.
    • 2. If 1:M, primary key must be taken out of the ONE SIDE to become the foreign key on the MANY SIDE.
    • 3. If M:M, primary key and foreign key are already established in the associative entity.
  45. Entity-Relationship Diagram
    Document that shows data entities and attributes, and relationships among them.
  46. Entity Instance
    a specific entity
  47. Database Management System (DBMS)
    The software program (or group of programs) that provides access to a database. Example: Microsoft Access
  48. Relational Database Model
    Data model based on the simple concept of tables in order to capitalize on characteristics of rows and columns of data.
  49. Data Dictionary
    Collection of definitions of data elements, data characteristics that use the data elements, and the individuals, business functions, applications, and reports that use this data element.
  50. Data Warehouse
    A repository for subject-oriented historical data that are organized to be accessible in a form readily acceptable for analytical processing.
  51. Data Mart
    A small data warehouse designed for a strategic business unit (SBU) or a department.
  52. E-Commerce
    The process of buying, selling, transferring, or exchanging products, services, or information via computer networks, including the Internet.
  53. E-Business
    A broader definition of electronic commerce, including buying and selling of goods and services, and also servicing customers, collaborating with business partners, conducting e-learning, and conducting electronic transactions within an organization.
  54. B2B
    Electronic commerce in which both the sellers and the buyers are business organizations.
  55. B2C
    Electronic commerce in which the sellers are organizations and the buyers are individuals; also known as e-tailing.
  56. C2C
    Electronic commerce in which both the buyer and the seller are individuals (not businesses).
  57. Bricks-and-Mortar Organizations
    Organizations in which the product, the process, and the delivery agent are all physical.
  58. Virtual Organizations
    Organizations in which the product, the process, and the delivery agent are all digital; also called pure-play organizations.
  59. Clicks-and-Mortar Organizations
    Organizations that do business in both the physical and digital dimensions.
  60. Electronic Storefront
    The Web site of a single company, with its own Internet address, at which orders can be placed.
  61. Electronic Mall
    A collection of individual shops under one Internet address.
  62. Cybersquatting
    Registering domain names in the hope of selling them later at a higher price.
  63. Mobile Computing
    A real-time wireless connection between a mobile device and other computing environments, such as the Internet or an intranet.
  64. Mobile Commerce
    Electronic commerce conducted in a wireless environment.
  65. Ubiquitous Computing
    A computer environment in which virtually every object has processing power with wireless or wired connections to a global network.
  66. GPS
    A wireless system that uses satellites to enable users to determine their position anywhere on earth.
  67. Wi-Fi
    A set of standards for wireless local area networks based on the IEEE 802.11 standard.
  68. RFID
    A wireless technology that allows manufacturers to attach tags with antennas and computer chips on goods and then track their movement through radio signals.
  69. Data redundancy
    The same data are stored in many places.
  70. Data Isolation
    Applications cannot access daata associated with other applications
  71. Data Inconsistency
    Various copies of the data do not agree
  72. Bit
    • smallest unit of data a computer can process
    • binary 0 1 0 1
  73. Byte
    8 bits
  74. Attribute
    • synonymous with field
    • each characteristic or quality of a particular entity
  75. Knowledge Management System Cycle
    • 1. Create Knowledge.
    • 2. Capture Knowledge.
    • 3. Refine Knowledge. Must be placed in context so that it is actionable.
    • 4. Store Knowledge.
    • 5 Manage Knowledge. Must be kept current and reviewed regularly.
    • 6. Disseminate Knowledge.
  76. Recognize the importance of data, issues involved in managing data, and their life cycle.
    The data life cycle starts with data collection. The data are stored in a database(s) and then preprocessed to fit the format of a data warehouse or data marts. Users then access data from the warehouse or data mart for analysis. The result of all these activities is the generation of decision support and knowledge.
  77. Describe the sources of data, and explain how data are collected.
    Data sources can be internal, personal, clickstream (from your company's Web transactions), and external (particularly the Internet). Internal data are usually located in corporate databases and are usually accessible via an organization's intranet. IS users create personal data by documenting their own expertise. These data can reside on the user's PC, or they can be placed on corporate databases or on corporate knowledge bases. Sources of external data range from commercial databases to government reports. Many thousands of databases all over the world are accessible through the Internet.
  78. Explain the advantages of the database approach.
    In a database, which is a group of logically related files, data are integrated and related so that one set of software programs provides access to all the data. Therefore, data redundancy, data isolation, and data inconsistency are minimized, and data can be shared among all users. In addition, data security and data integrity are increased, and applications and data are independent of each other.
  79. Explain the operation of data warehousing and its role in decision support.
    A data warehouse is a repository of subject-oriented historical data that are organized to be accessible in a form readily acceptable for analytical processing activities. End users can access needed data in a data warehouse quickly and easily via Web browsers. They can conduct extensive analysis with data and can develop a consolidated view of organizational data. These benefits can improve business knowledge, provide competitive advantage, enhance customer service and satisfaction, facilitate decision making, and help in streamline business processes.
  80. Define data governance, and explain how it helps produce high-quality data.
    Data governance is an approach to managing information across an entire organization. It ensures that data are handled in a certain, well-defined fashion. That is, the organization follows unambiguous rules for creating, collecting, handling, and protecting information.
  81. Define knowledge, and identify the different types of knowledge.
    Knowledge is information that is contextual, relevant, and actionable. Explicit knowledge deals with more objective, rational, and technical knowledge. Tacit knowledge is usually in the domain of subjective, cognitive, and experiential learning. It is highly personal and difficult to formalize and communicate to others.
  82. Normalization
    A method for analyzing and reducing a relational database to its most streamlined form for minimum redundancy, maximum data integrity, and best processing performance.
  83. Describe electronic commerce, including its scope, benefits, limitations, and types.
    E-commerce can be conducted on the Web and on other networks. It is divided into the following major types: business-to-consumer, business-to-business, consumer-to-consumer, business-to-employee, and government-to-citizen. E-commerce offers many benefits to organizations, consumers, and society, but it also has limitations (technological and nontechnological). The current technological limitations are expected to lessen with time.
  84. Distinguish between pure and partial electronic commerce.
    In pure EC, the product or service, the process by which the product or service is produced, and the delivery agent are all digital. All other combinations that include a mix of digital and physical dimensions are considered partial EC.
  85. Understand the basics of how online auctions work.
    A major mechanism in EC is auctions. The Internet provides an infrastructure for executing auctions at lower cost, and with many more involved sellers and buyers, including both individual consumers and corporations. Two major types of auctions exist: forward auctions and reverse auctions. Forward auctions are used in the traditional process of selling to the highest bidder. Reverse auctions are used for buying, using a tendering system to buy at the lowest bid.
  86. Differentiate among business-to-consumer (B2C), business-to-business (B2B), consumer-to-consumer (C2C), business-to-employee (B2E), and government-to citizen (G2C) electronic commerce.
    B2C (e-tailing) can be pure or part of a clicks-and-mortar organization. Direct marketing is done via solo storefronts, in malls, via electronic catalogs, or by using electronic auctions. The leading online B2C service industries are banking, securities trading, job markets, travel, and real estate. The major B2B applications are selling from catalogs and by forward auctions (the sell-side marketplace), buying in reverse auctions and in group and desktop purchasing (the buy-side marketplace), and trading in electronic exchanges and hubs. EC also can be done between consumers (C2C), but should be undertaken with caution. Auctions are the most popular C2C mechanism. C2C also can be done by use of online classified ads. B2E provides services to employees, typically over the company's intranet. G2C takes place between government and citizens, making government operations more effective and efficient.
  87. Identify some ethical and legal issues relating to e-commerce.
    There is increasing fraud and unethical behavior on the Internet, including invasion of privacy by sellers and misuse of domain names. The value of domain names, taxation of online business, and how to handle legal issues in a multicountry environment are major concerns. Protection of customers, sellers, and intellectual property is also important.
  88. Discuss today's wireless devices and wireless transmission media.

    In the past, we have discussed these devices in separate categories, such as pagers, e-mail handhelds, personal digital assistants (PDAs), cellular telephones, and smart phones. Today, however, new devices, generally called smart phones, combine the functions of these devices. The capabilities of these new devices include cellular telephony, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, a digital camera, global positioning system (GPS), an organizer, a scheduler, an address book, a calculator, access to e-mail and short message service, instant messaging, text messaging, an MP3 music player, a video player, Internet access with a full-function browser, and a QWERTY keyboard. Microwave transmission systems are widely used for high-volume, long-distance, point-to-point communication. Communicationsatellites are used in satellite transmission systems. The three types of satellite are geostationary earth orbit (GEO), medium earth orbit (MEO), and low earth orbit (LEO). Radio transmission uses radio-wave frequencies to send data directly between transmitters and receivers. Infrared light is red light not commonly visible to human eyes. The most common application of infrared light is in remote-control units for televisions and VCRs. Infrared transceivers are being used for short-distance connections between computers and peripheral equipment and LANs. Many portable PCs have infrared ports, which are handy when cable connections with peripheral equipment are not practical.
  89. Discuss today's wireless devices and wireless transmission media.

    Wireless networks can be grouped by their effective distance: short range, medium range, and wide area. Short-range wireless networks simplify the task of connecting one device to another, eliminating wires and enabling users to move around while they use the devices. In general, short-range wireless networks have a range of 100 feet or less, and include Bluetooth, Ultra-Wideband (UWB), and Near-Field Communications (NFC). Medium-range wireless networks are the familiar wireless local area networks (WLANs). The most common type of medium-range wireless network is Wireless Fidelity or Wi-Fi. Another type of medium-range wireless network is the mesh network, which uses multiple Wi-Fi access points to create a wide-area network. Mesh networks are essentially a series of interconnected local area networks. Wide-area wireless networks connect users to the Internet over geographically dispersed territory. These networks typically operate over the licensed spectrum. That is, they use portions of the wireless spectrum that are regulated by the government. In contrast, Bluetooth and Wi-Fi operate over the unlicensed spectrum and therefore are more prone to interference and security problems. In general, wide-area wireless network technologies include cellular radio and wireless broadband, or WiMAX.
  90. Define mobile computing and mobile commerce.
    Mobile computing is a computing model designed for people who travel frequently. Mobile commerce (m-commerce) is any e-commerce conducted in a wireless environment, especially via the Internet.
  91. Discuss the major m-commerce applications.
    Mobile financial applications include banking, wireless payments and micropayments, wireless wallets, and bill payment services. Job dispatch is a major intrabusiness application. Voice portals andmobile portals provide access to information. Location-based applications include retail shopping, advertising, and customer service. Other major m-commerce applications include wireless telemedicine and telemetry.
  92. Define pervasive computing and describe two technologies underlying this technology.
    Pervasive computingis invisible everywhere computing that is embedded in the objects around us. Two technologies provide the infrastructure for pervasive computing: radio-frequency identification (RFID) and wireless sensor networks (WSNs). RFID is the term for technologies that use radio waves to automatically identify the location of individual items equipped with tags that contain embedded microchips. WSNs are networks of interconnected, battery-powered, wireless devices placed in the physical environment to collect data from many points over an extended space.
  93. Discuss the four major threats to wireless networks.
    The four major threats to wireless networks are rogue access points, war driving, eavesdropping, and radio-frequency jamming. A rogue access point is an unauthorized access point to a wireless network. War driving is the act of locating WLANs while driving around a city or elsewhere. Eavesdropping refers to efforts by unauthorized users to access data that are traveling over wireless networks. Radio-frequency jamming occurs when a person or a device intentionally or unintentionally interferes with wireless network transmissions.