Bio psyc exam 3

The flashcards below were created by user jax12 on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. proliferation
    production of new cells.
  2. differentiates
    forming an axons and dendrites.
  3. stem cells
    immature or undifferentiated cells.
  4. myelination
    glia produce fatty sheaths that accelerate transmission of impulse.
  5. synaptogenesis
    formation of synapses.
  6. Roger Sperry
    • discovered that axons can grow back and connect.
    • cut newt’s optic nerve.
  7. nerve growth factor (NGF)
    • promotes the survival and growth of the axon.
    • cell body dies without it.
  8. apoptosis
    • programmed mechanism of cell death.
    • different from necrosis b/c damage does not kill the cell.
    • NGF cancels the program.
  9. neurotrophin
    • promotes the survival and activity of neurons.
    • when neurons release neurotransmitters they also release these.
  10. brain derived neurotrophic factor
    • most abundant neurotrophin in adult brain
    • for survival of connecting neurons
    • and survival of neurons being connected
  11. fetal alcohol syndrome
    • condition marked by impulsiveness, difficulty maintaining attention, motor problems, facial abnormalities
    • most dendrites are short with few branches.
    • anesthetic drugs increase inhibition of neurons, blocking most action potentials.
  12. focal hand dystonia
    fingers become clumsy, fatigue easily and make involuntary movements that interfere with task.
  13. closed head injury
    sharp blow to the head resulting from an accident, assault, or other sudden trauma, also blood clots
  14. stroke
    • cerebrovascular accident
    • hemorrhage or ischemia
    • impairs the sodium-potassium pump leading to accumulation of sodium within neurons.
  15. ischemia
    stroke as a result of a blood clot or other obstruction in an artery.
  16. hemorrhage
    stroke as a result of a ruptured artery.
  17. edema
    accumulation of fluid which puts pressure on the brain.
  18. tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)
    • breaks up blood clots
    • patient should receive it within 3 hours of a stroke.
    • has serious side effects including hemorrhage.
  19. penumbra
    region surrounding the immediate damage.
  20. diaschisis
    • decreased activity of surviving neurons after damage to other neurons.
    • increased stimulation should help if there are behavioral deficits.
  21. minimizing stroke damage
    • cool the person for 3 afterward (91-97 degrees)
    • tPA
    • cannabinoids reduce cell loss after stroke (anti-inflammatory actions)
  22. regrowth of axons
    • in mammals only regrow a 1mm or 2mm
    • a cut causes a scar which inhibits growth
    • neurons cut pull apart
  23. collateral sprouts
    new branches from axons that attach to vacant synapses.
  24. denervation supersensitivity
    heightened sensitivity to a neurotransmitter after destruction of an incoming axon.
  25. disuse supersensitivity
    heightened sensitivity as a result of inactivity by an incoming axon.
  26. phantom limbs
    • only develop if the portion of the somatosensory cortex reorganizes and becomes responsive to alternative inputs.
    • connections in the brain remain plastic throughout life.
  27. deafferented
    limb has lost its afferent sensory input.
  28. law of specific nerve energies
    impulses in one neuron indicate light, impulses in another indicate sound.
  29. ganglion cells
    • closest to center of eye
    • receive bipolar messages
    • form optic nerve
  30. bipolar cells
    • middle layer of receptor cells
    • receives input from rods and cones
  31. fovea
    tiny area specialized for acute detailed vision.
  32. midget ganglion
    each is small and responds to just a single cone.
  33. rods
    • more numerous than cones
    • for dim light
    • not in color
    • more numerous in periphery or macula
  34. photopigments
    • chemical that releases energy when struck by light.
    • rods and cones contain photopigments.
  35. cones
    • need bright light
    • highest concentration in fovea
    • color vision
    • less numerous than rods
  36. wavelengths we can see
    300-750 nm
  37. trichromatic theory of color vision
    we perceive color through the relative ratio of response by three kinds of cones
  38. opponent process theory of color
    we perceive color in terms of opposites
  39. retinex theory
    • cortex and retina perceive color
    • cortex compares info from various parts of retina to determine the brightness and
    • color for each atrea
  40. color vision deficiency
    • complete color blindness is rare
    • some people lack one or two of the types of cones b/c of genetics
  41. lateral geniculate nucleus
    part of the thalamus
  42. receptive field
    part of the visual field that excites or inhibits a cell.
  43. parvocellular neurons
    • small cell bodies and small receptive fields
    • mostly in or near the fovea.
  44. magnocellular neurons
    • larger cell bodies and receptive fields
    • distributed evenly throughout retina.
  45. koniocellular neurons
    • small cell bodies
    • occur throughout retina.
  46. blindsight
    ability to respond to visual info that people report not seeing.
  47. primary visual cortex
    • occipital cortex/ V1
    • damage: no conscious vision, imagery, images in dreams.
  48. secondary visual cortex, v2
    processes the information further and transmits it to additional areas.
  49. ventral stream
    • the “what” pathway
    • specialized for identifying and recognizing objects.
  50. dorsal stream
    • the “where/how” pathway
    • because it helps the motor system find and use objects.
  51. simple cell
    • has a receptive field with fixed excitatory and inhibitory zones.
    • response depends on angle of bar of light.
    • part of the shape pathway
  52. complex cell
    • part of the shape pathway
    • do not respond to exact location of a stimulus.
    • responds the same for a bar in any position within the receptive field.
  53. end-stopped/hypercomplex cells
    • resemble complex cells except it has a strong inhibitory area at one end of its bar-shaped receptive field.
    • part of shape pathway.
  54. semicircular canals
    • oriented in perpendicular planes
    • filled with a jellylike substance and lined with hair cells.
  55. somatosensory system
    sensation of the body and its movements is many senses.
  56. pacinian corpuscle
    detects sudden displacements of high frequency vibrations on the skin.
  57. dermatome
    • limited area of the body that gets its own spinal nerve
    • overlaps one third to one half of next dermatome
    • Spinal nerves connect 31 dermatomes to CNS
  58. capsaicin
    chemical found in hot peppers that stimulates pain receptors.
  59. glutamate
    released during mild pain
  60. substance P
    released during strong pain
  61. opioid mechanisms
    systems that respond to opiate drugs and similar chemicals.
  62. periaqueductal gray area
    opiates bind to receptors found here in the midbrain.
  63. endorphins
    contraction of endogenous morphines.
  64. gate theory
    spinal cord neurons that receive messages from pain receptors also receive input from touch receptors and from axons descending from the brain.
  65. Vestibular organ is located close to inner ear (cochlea)
    • Monitors:Direction of head tilt; Acceleration of the head
    • Easier to read a sentence while you move your head than if someone else moves the sentence around
    • Movement of head to right -> compensatory eye movement to the left, and vice versa
  66. Vestibulo-ocular reflex –
    connects vestibular organ with muscles of the eye.
  67. Vestibular system
    consists of 2 otolith organs
  68. Otoliths:
    • calcium carbonate particles, lie next to hair cells in a chamber
    • Movement pushes particles against hair cell – excitation
    • Chambers with patches of hair, detect motion in
    • Horizontal – Utricle
    • Vertical – Saccule
  69. Central pathway:
    action potentials from hair cells travel through 8th cranial nerve to brainstem (pons) and cerebellum
  70. Motion/sea sickness
    Nausea induction: optokinetic drum; environment is moving but you aren’t, throws you off
  71. Ruffini ending
    • Located in both hairy and hairless areas of the sin
    • Responds to stretch of skin, slipping of objects along skin
    • Helps with finger coordination (gripping objects)
  72. Free nerve ending
    • Unmyelinated or thinly myelinated axons
    • Located near base of hairs and in skin
    • Sensations of pain, warmth, cold
    • Can also be stimulated by chemicals
    • Capsaicin (chemical in hot peppers)
    • Menthol/mint
  73. Transduction:
    Conversion of physical or chemical stimuli into bioelectrical signals, by specialized cells or sensitive endings in sense organs: “receptors”
  74. 2 pathways of pain
    • sensory – to thalamus, somatosensory cortex
    • emotional – to medulla, thalamus, hypothalamus
  75. cingulate cortex
    reacts to emotional aspect of pain not the sensation
  76. radial glia
    • astrocyte
    • long fibers extend from inner t outer layers of brain
    • guide migration and growth of axons
  77. Stimulus generality:
    • different types of stimuli (light, mechanical pressure) can act upon a particular sensory nerve (retinal receptors, optic nerve), will create the same sensations (vision)
    • “common currency”: all types of sensory nerves send same type of information to the brain: action potentials
  78. Specificity of brain area:
    • where never fibers terminate gives special character of sensation
    • Brain “sees” the activity of optic neurons and “hears” the activity of the auditory neurons.
    • Where nerve fibers end is where sensory quality is encoded.
  79. amacrine cells
    exchange info with bipolar cells and send info to ganglion and other amacrine cells
  80. ciliary muscles:
    control lens, can make it flatter or thicker (seeing objects closer) controlled by parasympathetic and sympathetic NS
  81. macula:
    • 3x5 mm center of retina with greatest ability to resolve detail
    • fovea: the center of the macula
  82. Explanation for afterimages:
    • Retinal cells produce opposite color output
    • Short wavelength = excitation = blue
    • Long wavelength = inhibition = yellow
    • Then presentation of neutral white or gray ->produces experience of the opposite color yellow (because it is inhibited)
Card Set:
Bio psyc exam 3
2011-10-27 06:49:47
bio psyc exam

bio psyc exam 3
Show Answers: