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What is the normal levels of potassium?
normal 3.5-5 meQ/L
What is it called when the Potassium levels are below 3.5?
What is the cause of hypokelemia?
Too much potassium is loss due to poor dietary intake.
What are early signs of hypokelemia?
- mental confusion
- muscle weakness
How do you treat mild hypokelemia?
replace with foods rich in potassium
How do you treat sever hypokelemia?
IV of potassium supplement, potassium chloride
What is the normal level of Calcium?
Normal serum level is 4-5 mEq/L
What is the primary role of calcium?
- formation of healthy bones and teeth
- promotes normal blood coagulation
- critical to never conduction
- maintains electrical potential after the rapid sodium-potassium pump
What is it called with a calcium level below 4 mEq/L?
What does sever hypocalcemia cause?
- muscle spasms
- sharp flexion of the wrist and ankles
What are the methods to check for severe hypocalcemia?
- Trousseau's Sign
- Chvostek's Sign
What is hypecalcemia?
- Level of calcium above 5 mEq/L
- a symptom of an underlying disease
- causes excess bone reabsorption with release of calcium
what is the normal level of Magnesium?
Normal serum level is 1.5-2.5 mEq/L
What do you assess for when checking for need of electrolyte replacement?
- Taking a history
- obtain clinical measurements
- assessing skin turgor
- neuromusclar irritability
- perform a physical exam
- review labs for fluid & electrolytes
What are the 6 things to look for in the patients history?
- 1.fluid and food intake
- 2.fluid output
- 3.recent fluid losses
- 4.signs of fluid deficit or excess
- 5.common signs of electrolyte problems
- 6.long term and recent disease processes
- 7.medications and treatments
What is the best measurement to notice either a deficit or excess of fluid?
If patient has experienced large number of lbs gained in a weak might mean what?
patient has a fluid overload in body
What type of vital signs would you see in a patient with a fluid deficit?
- Temp increase
- pulse decrease
- Blood pressure decrease
- peripheral pulses weak and threading
What type of vital signs would you notice in a patient with a fluid excess?
- Weight gain
- pulse increases
- Blood pressure increase
- peripheral pulse strong and bonding
What are physical signs on a patient that would tell you if there is and defict or excess?
- skin color
- oral cavity
- jugular veins
- veins of the hand
- neurologic system (LOC)
What does the Osmolality lab test tell you?
- solute concentration of urine
- increase osmolality means a fluid devicit
- decrease osmolality means a fluid excess
What are the normal values for urine osmolatity?
Normal vaules are 500-800 mOsm/kg
What does the urine pH tell you about the kidneys?
Whether the kidneys are responding appropriately to metabolic acid-base imbalances
What are the Nursing Dx related to fluid volume?
- Deficient Fluid volume/ Risk
- Risk for imbalanced fluid volume
- Fluid volume excess
What are the outcomes for pateints with actual or potential F & E imbalances?
- Regain adequate F & E balance
- Avoid potential associate risks
- -skin break down
- -loss of tissue integrity
- -decreased cardiac output
What are the 3 types of IV fluids to correct imbalances?
- isotonic=equal to blood plasma
- hypotonic=less than blood plasma
- hypertonic=more than blood plasma
What is a herb?
a plant or part of a plant valued for ite medicinal, savory, or aromatic qualities
What are some examples of herbs for medicinal purposes?
- snakeroot=source of reserpine
- Willow bark=source of aspirin
- Pacific Yew Tree=source of Taxol
True/False. Herbs are considered an alternative medicine.
What is the difference between legend drugs and dietary supplements?
- For dietary supplements DSHEA requires: no proof of efficacy
- sets no standards for quality control for products
- do not need approval from the FDA before marketed
- Manufactures does not have to provide FDA with evidence on which it relies to substantiate yhe safety or effectivness of a product
- Manufactures may state an effect but does not need to promise a specific cure on the label
How many adults use dietary supplements?
what is alternative medicine?
the use of herbal products and nontraditional remedies
What is complentary medicine?
The use of both traditional medicine and alternative medicine at the same time.
Why do people believe herbal medicines are better?
plants contain natural substances that can promote health and alleviate illness.
What are the most common things herbal medicines are used to treat?
- intestinal disorders
- premenstrual syndrome
- menopausal symptoms
What can affect a persons response to a drug? OTC, prescription, or herbal.
what are some harmful concerns about herbs?
- interaction with conventional drugs
- can effect lab results
- increase BP
- cause palpitations and stroke
Why are dietary supplements popular?
- 1. available without prescription
- 2. cheaper
- 3. aggressive marketing
- 4. cultural practices and beliefs
According to FDA, who do you report adverse effects of dietary supplements, drugs, or medical devices to.
Med Watch toll free number
What are some commonly used herbal products?
aloe, black cohosh, chamomile, echinacea, feverfew, garlic, ginger, ginseng, ginko biloba, golden seal, hawthorne, kava, saw palmetto, St John's Wort, Valerian
Before getting an anesthetic what should you do about herbs?
- 1. stop taking herbal products 2 weekd prior
- 2. inform surgeon and anesthesia that you are taking herbal products
- 3. bring container in to know whats exactly in in
true/false. Herbal products are not treated as medicine.
What are the 6 herbal products that affect clotting?
- 1. Dong Quai (Angelica)
- 2. Garlic
- 3. Ginger
- 4. Ginkgo
- 5. Ginseng
- 6. Feverfew
What are the 8 herbal products that affect glucose levels?
- 1. bay
- 2. basil
- 3. Bee pollen
- 4. Ephedra (Ma-huang) - causes hyperglycemia
- 5. Garlic- causes hypoglycemia
- 6. ginseng
- 7. milk thistle
- 8. sage
What are the 5 herbal products that are used for healing?
- 1. Aloe
- 2. Chamomile
- 3. Evening primrose
- 4. Goldenseal
- 5. St John's wort
Who should be very cautious of taking herbal products?
- young children
- pregnant women
- nursing mothers
- older adults with liver or CV diseases
List 2 important things about Aloe.
- 1. used for laxatives & healing of wounds
- 2. may increase hypokalemia
- 3. use cautiously in patients with renal disease, f&E imbalance, diabetes
List 3 important things about black cohosh.
- 1. causes decrease in BP
- 2. May increase bleeding
- 3. manages menopausal sysmptoms
What is Chamomile used for?
used for healing
List 7 important things about Echinacea.
- 1. causes immune suppression
- 2. cause liver inflammation
- 3. used for bacterial and viral infections
- 4. prevents and treats colds, coughs, flu, and bronchitis
- 5. used for wound healing
- 6. reduces inflammation of the mouth and pharynx
- 7. used for UTI's and vaginal candidiasis
What can cause hypocalcemia?
- 1. transfusion of blood
- 2. alkalosis
- 3. kidney disease
- 4. drainging fistula
- 5. inadequate dietary intake
What are some effects of hypocalcemia?
- 1.BONES: osteoporosis > fractures
- 2.CNS: tingling > convulsions
- 3.GI TRACT:increased peristalis > N/V and diarrhea
- 4.MUSCLES: Muscle spasms > tetany
- 5.CV: dysrhythmias > cardiac arrest
What are some effects of hypercalcemia?
- 1.BONES: bone pain> osteoporosis > fractures
- 2.CNS: decreased deep tendon reflexes > lethargy > coma
- 3.KIDNEY: kidney stones > kidney damages
- 4.MUSCLES: muscle fatigue hypotonia > decrease GI tract motility
- 5. CV: depressed activity > dysrhythmias > cardiac arrest
What are some causes of hypercalcemia?
- 1. loss from bones
- 2. excess intake