Anthropology 101 Exam 2 NEWER

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amanipon
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112562
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Anthropology 101 Exam 2 NEWER
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2011-10-27 06:58:05
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Anthropology
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  1. Evolution
    Change in allele frequency in a population from one generation to the next
  2. Microevolution
    Small scale, observable changes in a few generations
  3. Genetic Drift
    Random changes in allele frequency
  4. Macroevolution
    Large scale changes, speciation
  5. Mechanisms of Evolution
    Mutation (Point Mutations, Frameshift mutations), Gene Flow, Genetic Drift (Founder Effect), Natural Selection (Sickle-Cell Anemia and malaria)
  6. Population
    A group of potentially interbreeding individuals
  7. Gene Pool
    Total complement of alleles in a population
  8. Mutation
    The only way to get new alleles to get into a species (Point mutation, frameshift mutation, chromosomal mutation, gene flow)
  9. Point Mutation
    Single base substitution
  10. Frameshift Mutation
    Insertion, deletion
  11. Gene Flow
    Movement of alleles between populations (migration) (ex: island model)
  12. Balanced Polymorphism
    Maintenance of 2 or more alleles in a reasonable frequency because of a selective advantage for the heterozygote
  13. 7 main levels of taxonomy
    Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
  14. Founder Effect
    A group's gene pool is the result of a small number of initial migrants
  15. TAXONOMY: Kingdom
    Animalia-move ingest food
  16. TAXONOMY: Phylum
    Chordota-notochord, gill slits
  17. TAXONOMY: Class
    Mammalia-nurse young (monotremes = egg-laying mammals, marsupials = pouched mammals)
  18. TAXONOMY: Order
    Primates (prosimians, monkeys, apes, humans)
  19. TAXONOMY: Family
    Hominidee (great apes, humans)
  20. TAXONOMY: Genus
    Homo
  21. TAXONOMY: Species
    Sapiens
  22. Homology
    Similarity in structure due to a common evolutionary descent
  23. Homoplasy
    Similarity in structure for a reason other than common evolutionary descent
  24. Phylogenetic trees (phylogenes)
    Graphical representation of the evolutionary relationships of a taxonomic group
  25. Ancestral Trait
    A trait that is found among all members of the group under study
  26. Shared Derived Traits
    A trait found among a subset of the group under study not found in the common ancestor
  27. Uniquely Derived Traits
    A trait that is found only within 1 group included in the study
  28. Phenetics (Evolutionary Systematics)
    Use as many traits as possible-share most traits = most closely related
  29. Cladistics
    Use a small number of evolutionary important traits
  30. Species
    A group of reproductively isolated organisms
  31. Biological species concept
    Group of organisms who can mate and produce viable and fertile offspring
  32. Mate Recognition Species Concept
    Group of organisms who will recognize each other in the wild as potential mates
  33. Morphological Species Concept
    Group of organisms who share an over-whelming number of traits in common
  34. Adaptive Radiations
    Increase in the number and diversity of a group of related species
  35. Locomotor Patterns
    Quadrapedality, Vertical climbers and leapers, Brachiators, Slow Quadrumanous Climbers, Knuckle-walker, Bipeds
  36. LOCOMOTOR PATTERN: Quadrapedality
    Terrestrial (Macaques, Baboon), Arboreal (Saki, Spider monkeys)
  37. LOCOMOTOR PATTERN: Vertical climbers and leapers
    Lemurs, galago
  38. LOCOMOTOR PATTERN: Brachiators
    Gibbons/siamangs (spider monkeys)
  39. LOCOMOTOR PATTERN: Slow Quadrumanous Climbers
    Orangutans, lorises
  40. LOCOMOTOR PATTERN: Knuckle-walker
    Chimpanzee, Gorilla
  41. LOCOMOTOR PATTERN: Bipeds
    Humans
  42. Teeth
    Incisors, Canines (cuspids), Premolar (bicuspids), Molar (3-7 cusps)
  43. Dental Formula
    2:1:2:3 (OW Monkeys, Apes and Humans) (NW Monkeys)
  44. Characteristics of Primates
    (1) generalized limb structure (2) prehensile hands and feet (3) opposable thumb and partially opposable big toe (4) retention of 5 digits (5) nails instead of claws (6) tactile pads at fingertips (7) generalized dentition (8) increase reliance on color vision (9) binocular vision [forward facing eyes] (10) decrease reliance on smell (11) increase brain size and complexity (12) increase k-selection
  45. Prosimians Features
    (1) Increase reliance of smell (2) more laterally placed eyes (3) shorter gestation / maturation (4) nocturnal (5) hemimandibles (6) post-orbital bar (7) dental comb (8) grooming claw
  46. Anthropoid Features
    (1) post-orbital closure (2) fused mandible (3) increased importance of vision (4) diurnal (5) increased brain size and complexity
  47. Paleoanthropology
    Archaeology, Osteology, Primatology, Paleoecology (Paleobotanists, Paleontologists), Geology, Chemistry, Taphonomy (study of processes that affect site or fossil from deposition to discovery)
  48. Dating Techniques
    (1) Relative Dating Techniques [younger than / older than] (2) Absolute Dating Techniques [calendar date]
  49. GEOLOGICAL TIME: Eras
    (a) Pre-Cambrian [4.6bya-575mya] (b) Paleozoic "Age of Fish" [575-225mya] (c) Mesozoic "Age of Reptiles"[225-56mya] (d) Cenozoic "Age of Mammals" [65mya-present]
  50. GEOLOGICAL TIME: Periods
    Tertiary Period and Quaternary Period
  51. GEOLOGICAL TIME: Epochs, Tertiary Period
    Paleocene [65-55], Eocene [55-34], Oligocene [34-23], Miocene [23-5], Pliocene [5-1.8]
  52. GEOLOGICAL TIME: Epochs, Quaternary Period
    Pleistocene [1.8mya-10,000ya], Holocene [10,000-present]
  53. Relative Dating Technique
    (1) Stratigraphy [law of superposition] (2) Biostratigraphy [Index fossil > [1] abundant in fossil record [2] evolves rapidly [3] cover the geographic spread of sites in question] (3) Fluorine Analysis [Piltdown Hoax] (4) Paleomagnetism [Iron pieces point N or S, Responds to the position of magnetic North]
  54. Absolute Dating Techniques
    (1) Potassium-Argon [Potassium 40 decays into Argon 40 at a known rate (half-life of 1.3by), take a volcanic rock and measure the amount of Argon 40 captured within it and compare it to the amount of Potassium, using a formula that includes the half-life you can determine when that rock was last part of a volcanic eruption] (2) Radiocarbon Dating [only work on organic items, only up to 50,000ya]
  55. Platyrhines Features
    (a) flat noses (b) 2133 dental formula
  56. Catarrhines Features
    (a) down-turned noses (b) 2123 dental formula (c) sexual dimorphism
  57. Platyrhine Families
    (a) Callitrichidae [(Marmosets, Tamarins) Insectovores, Vertical climbers and leapers, mated pair or polyandrous] (b) Cebidae [(Capuchins, Owl Monkeys, Spider Monkeys) Arboreal Quadrupeds and Semibrachiators, same sex groups, mated pairs, fruit and leaf eaters]
  58. Catarrhines Super Families
    (a) Cercopithecoidea [OW Monkeys] (b) Hominoidea [apes, humans]
  59. Hominoid Families
    (a) Hylobatidae (b) Hominidae
  60. Hominidae Subfamilies
    (a) Ponginae (b) Gorillanae (c) Homininae [Tribe Panini, Tribe Hominini]
  61. HOMINOID FAMILIES: Hylobatidae
    (Lesser Apes) Gibbons and Siamangs-SE Asia, Brachiators, Monogamous pair bonds, frugivores
  62. HOMINIDAE SUBFAMILIES: Ponginae
    Pongo pygmaeus (Orangutan)-SE Asia, Solitary, Slow Quadrumanous Climbers, Frugivores
  63. HOMINIDAE SUBFAMILIES: Gorillanae
    Gorilla gorilla (Gorilla)-Africa [2 subspecies-Mountain and Lowland], Dominant male with several females, knucklewalker, leaf eaters
  64. HOMINIDAE SUBFAMILIES: Homininae
    (1) Tribe Panini (a) Pan troglodytes [Common Chimpanzee]-Africa, Large multisex troop, knucklewalker, omnivores (b) Pan paniscus [Bonobo Chimpanzee]-Africa, Large multisex troop, knucklewalker, omnivores (2) Tribe Hominini (a) Homo Sapiens-Everywhere, Large multisex groups, Bipedal, Omnivores, Serial Monogamy
  65. Hominoid Features
    (a) absence of tail (b) stable lower back (c) complex brain and behavior (d) increased length or maturation
  66. Original thought to be primates
    Paleocene, Pleisiadipiforms
  67. Eocene
    1st Prosimians-Omomyoids, Adapoids
  68. Oligocene
    1st Anthropoids-Fayum Depression, Agyptopithecus
  69. Miocene
    1st Hominoids-Proconsul, Dryopithecus, Kenyapithecus [dental apes, thin enamel, parallel tooth rows, y-5 molars]
  70. Sivapithecus
    Ancestral to modern orangutans
  71. ABSOLUTE DATING TECHNIQUES: Need to know
    (1) Rate of decay (2) How much radioactive isotope is present now (3) How much radio active isotope was present and time of interest
  72. Radiometric Dating
    Isotope > alternate version of an atom. Radioactive isotopes-rate of decay=half-life
  73. Half-life
    Number of years it takes for half of the remaining radioactive isotope to decay into the stable daughter isotope

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