10-14 - Acute Inflammation 1a (Levitt).txt

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10-14 - Acute Inflammation 1a (Levitt).txt
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  1. Definition of Inflammation
    Reaction of a vascularized living tissue to focal injury
  2. "The suffix ""-itis"" refers to"
    Inflammation of a structure
  3. "The suffix ""-osis"" refers to"
    • "
    • variety of noninflammatory nonneoplastic diseases



    "
  4. Causes of inflammation
    • "
      • infectious organisms
      • noxious chemicals
      • physical causes (trauma)
      • endogenous substances in excess or in the wrong place (enzymes, uric acid, etc.)
      • autoimmune-mediated (SLE - systemic lupus erythematous)
      • neoplasia (tumors)
      "
  5. Constituents of inflammation
    • "
      • circulating cells
      • connective tissue cells
      • extracellular matrix
      • basement membrane
      "
  6. Categories of Inflammation - General Criteria for Classification
    • "


      • duration of lesion



      • distribution of lesion



      • severity of lesion



      • predominant cell type / exudate present



      • response of involved tissue



      • "
    • Categories of Inflammation - Specific Criteria for Classification
      • "
        • acute: minutes-days; neutrophils & fluid protein exudates
        • chronic: days-years; lymphocytes & macrophages; tissue destruction & repair
        • granulomatous: special type of chronic inflammation with granulomata / epitheliod histiocytes, macrophages, and giant cells
        • repair: resolution of inflammation to the previous state or scar formation
        • inflammation is terminated when injurious stimulus is removed & all the mediators are dissipated or inhibited
        "
    • Signs of Inflammation
      • "

        FIVE CARDINAL SIGNS:

        • heat
        • redness
        • swelling
        • pain
        • loss of function
      • ADDITIONAL SIGNS:

        • transudate - ultra filtrate of plasma, low in protein
        • exudate - high in protein, cloudy
        • pus - exudate containing neutrophils
        • effusion - collection of fluid in body cavity
      •  

        "
    • Types of Inflammation
      • "
        • Serous - dominated by fluid exudate with relatively few PMN
        • Fibrinous - dominated by extravascular transformation of leaked fibrinogen to fibrin produced by tissue thromboplastins
        • Mucosal Inflammation (catarrhal): the exudate is mostly fluid with relatively few PMNs
        • Mucosal Inflammation (suppurative/purulent): sever inflammation exudate
        "
    • Function of Chemical Mediators
      from plasma or cells; amplify the inflammatory response stimulus and influence the type and length of response
    • Laboratory and Systemic Signs of Inflammation
      • "
        • Leukocytosis - abnormally large number of leukocytes (WBCs) in the blood
          • Acute: increased neutrophils & bands; immature forms (bands) = ""left shift""
          • Chronic / Viral: lymphocytes
          • Parasitic / Allergies: eosinophils
        • Increased erythrocytes sedimentation rate - non-specific indicator of inflammation
          • Due to increased fibrinogen & globulins in serum
        • Effects of acute phase reactants - proteins that increase with onset of inflammation
          • ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein
        • Helpful laboratory markers: Enzymes that ""leak"" from damaged cells
          • type of enzyme gives a clue to the organ or tissue damaged
        "
    • {image:457600|center}
      Acute Rhinitis
    • {image:457601|center}
      Acute Rhinitis
    • {image:457602|center}
      Acute fibrinous pericarditis
    • {image:457603|center}
      Acute Lobar Pneumonia
    • {image:457604|center}
      Acute Lobar Pneumonia
    • {image:457605|center}
      Acute bacterial meningitis
    • {image:457606|center}
      Acute appendicitis
    • {image:457607|center}
      Acute appendicitis

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