CSD 311K Phonetics 1

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amykath
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112579
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CSD 311K Phonetics 1
Updated:
2011-10-27 10:30:21
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slp phonetics
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Exam 2
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  1. Fundamental frequency is produced at what level? (3 names)
    Laryngeal, phonatory, sound source
  2. Harmonics are integer multiple of ____.
    F0
  3. The 1st harmonic is also ____.
    F0
  4. What does the Fourier analysis do?
    It breaks complex sound into harmonics.
  5. What does the Source-Filter Theory describe?
    How the three systems of speech production work together to produce speech sounds.
  6. What is the power source of speech production?
    The respiratory system
  7. What is the sound source of speech production?
    The phonatory/laryngeal system
  8. What is the sound filter of speech production?
    The pharyngeal, oral and nasal cavities
  9. The sound filter's three cavities are also called the _____ system.
    supralaryngeal
  10. What is sound?
    It is a pressure wave that carries a disturbance through an elastic medium.
  11. Compression is shown by the ____ of a waveform.
    peaks
  12. Rarefaction is shown by the ____ of a waveform.
    valleys
  13. No sound can be transmitted in a _____ or any condition without _____.
    • vacuum
    • air
  14. Amplitude is equal to _____ and is measured in ____.
    • loudness
    • dB
  15. dB is a ____ measure. 0 dB does not equal silence.
    relative
  16. Duration is equal to _____ measured in _____.
    • length
    • seconds or miliseconds
  17. In reference to the relationship between articulation and phonation, it can be said the two are ____ of each other.
    independent
  18. Can a complex periodic and a complex aperiodic sound exist?
    Yes, voiced fricatives.
  19. Silence exists with what kind of sounds?
    Voiceless stop consonants
  20. The x axis is the ____ axis, also called the ____.
    • horizontal
    • abscissa
  21. The y axis is the ____ axis, also called the _____.
    ordinate
  22. Name the x and y axis as well as the missing component in a waveform.
    • x: time
    • y: amplitude
    • frequency is missing
  23. Name the x and y axis as well as the missing component in a spectrum.
    • x: frequency
    • y: amplitude
    • time is missing
  24. Name the x and y axis as well as the missing component in a spectrogram.
    • x: time
    • y: frequency
    • amplitude is missing
  25. Between vowels and consonants, which has a higher amplitude on a waveform?
    Vowels
  26. A spectrum shows the ____ in a speech sound.
    harmonics
  27. In a spectrum, amplitude decreases at what rate?
    -12dB per octave
  28. In respect to the spectrum, what is an octave?
    a double in frequency
  29. _____ is missing on a spectrogram, but can be shown using _____.
    • Amplitude
    • grayscale
  30. What are the two types of spectrogram?
    Wideband and narrowband
  31. What is highlighted on a wideband spectrogram?
    Formants
  32. What is highlighted on a narrowband spectrogram?
    Harmonics
  33. The vertical lines seen most clearly on a wideband spectrogram represent what?
    Glottal pulses
  34. The strap muscle is what kind of muscle?
    Extrinsic
  35. Which muscle is part of the vocal folds?
    Thyroarytenoids
  36. Cartilages and connective tissue allow ____ and ____ among functioning parts.
    • flexibility
    • movement
  37. Muscles are tissues that are able to expand based on _____.
    nervous system control
  38. The thyroid articluates with the cricoid by ____ and _____.
    • rocking
    • gliding
  39. The cricoid has _____ that allow it to move and stretch the vocal folds.
    4 facets
  40. The arytenoids articulate with the _____. They ____ and ____ like door hinges.
    • cricoid
    • glide
    • rotate
  41. What two conditions must be met in order for voicing or vocal fold vibration to occur?
    • Vocal folds must be properly positioned
    • There must be sufficient airflow
  42. The vocal folds must be ____ and _____ for phonation to occur.
    • adducted
    • sufficiently tense
  43. The open and close cycle of phonation is a result of what two forces?
    • aerodynamic
    • elastic recoil
  44. Varying Degrees of Abduction and Adduction

    Vocal folds completely abducted
    Breathing
  45. Varying Degrees of Abduction and Adduction

    Vocal folds partially abducted
    a whisper or frication
  46. Varying Degrees of Abduction and Adduction

    Vocal folds partially adducted
    Breathy voice
  47. Varying Degrees of Abduction and Adduction

    Vocal folds adducted
    Regular phonation
  48. Varying Degrees of Abduction and Adduction

    Vocal folds adducted and very tense
    Creaky voice
  49. Frequency equals ____ and is measured in ____.
    • pitch
    • Hz
  50. Phonation has what relationship to respiration?
    Phonation is dependent on respiration
  51. Voiceless consonants have a longer VOT because for voiced ________.
    the vocal folds are already in motion
  52. If a voiceless consonant is positioned at the syllable's initial position, what is the VOT?
    + VOT (ex. top, puppy [both syllables in puppy begin with a +VOT])
  53. If a voiceless consonant is positioned at the medial position, what is the VOT?
    0 VOT (ex. spy)
  54. If a voiced stop consonant is positioned at the syllable's initial position, what is the VOT?
    0 VOT
  55. If a voiced consonant is surrounded by voiced sounds, what is the VOT?
    -VOT (ex. above - b has a -VOT)

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