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- When: August 1914
- who: Great britian, France, russia
- why: joined when russia was fighting with the austria hungary for the ottoman empire and when the princip assassinated granz ferdinand, the heir to the austro hungarian throne.
- so what: the great war beagn later turning into ww1 and the side the us joined.
- google: Allied Powers
- Who/What? Britain, France, Russia are otherwise known as
- the Allied Powers. Also called the “Triple Entente”
- When: 1942
- who: germany, itialy, japan, austria hunary, finland, bulgaria, romana
- why: to control the "world" germany would have dominated all f europe and much of africa and japan would have controlled most of east asia , the allied powers would not allow this so they tool them to war.
- so what: ww 11 began
- Who/What? Any kind of
- dissent or unpatriotic activity, or people being critical of the US was not
- When? After WWI when a
- communist revolution took over the government in Russia.
- Why? To promote national
- unity by suppressing any opposition of the government
- So What/Significance? Many
- Americans became target of suspicion, Rebirth of KKK and Racial Violence in
Agriculture Adjustment administration
- Who/What? Sought to control prices by controlling supply.
- AAA began direct governmental regulation of the farm economy.
- In order to solve the problem of overproduction
- What/Significance? Somewhat effective but hurt many at bottom.
- Killed many animals and crops. Later declared unconstitutional. Also, as less
- crops were grown per farm less workforce was needed and therefore, unemployment
Banking Act of 1933
- Who/What? Closed all the
- banks and to be inspected the health of all the banks until they have enough
- cash reserved. Required separation of investment banking
- from commercial banking
When? 1933 after stock market crash
- Why? Because many citizens have lost their
- money from banks (cut their savings). Commercial banks were deemed the main
- culprit for banks failures as they took on too much risks for depositors’
- What/Significance? Guarantee up to $100,000 8====D (I think it is up to $250,000 per depositor under the FDIC) deposit which
- gave people faith in banks and the government
- when: summer of 1932
- who: veterans of ww1
- why: after the war, when they came home the us was in an economic depression so unemployment was down and jobs were hard to find and were waiting on the army bonus they were suppose to get
- so what: when they were not getting it they decided to join forces and marched to washington were they camped and marched for days to demend for immediate payment of their service certificates, a pension that was due to be paid by 1945. hoover eventually sent the regular army troops to march them right out.
- google: Who/What? A ragtag group of about 15,000 unemployed World
- War I veterans, hitchhiked to Washington to demand immediate payment of their
- Service Certificates, a pension award that was due to be paid in 1945
When? Summer of 1932
- Why? Because
- as heroes in World War 1 are demanding immediate payment of their Service
- So What/Significance? Most publicized and most tragic protest. The
- Bonus Army even set up camps near the U.S. Capitol building. Also
- significantly after this event and after Hoover called out regular troops,
- Hoover’s popularity plunged!
Booker T. washinton
- Who/What? He is the dominant black leader of the
- Progressive Era who in a famous speech in Atlanta in 1895 advocated
- accommodation with the South. Washington, born as a slave, banked on black
- economic progress. He was remarkable both for his ability to act as a spokesman
- to white Americans and for his deep understanding of the aspirations of black
- Americans. He understood what it took to gain white support.
When? Progressive Era (1900-1914)
- Why? Because
- he was born a slave, he suffered the indignities experienced by all blacks
- after the aspirations of black Americans.
- What/Significance? The situations of
- blacks was deteriorating even in the North. Over 200,000 blacks migrated from
- the South between 1900 and 1910, sparking white resentment in northern cities.
- Attacks on blacks became widespread, capped by a bloody race riot in
- Springfield, Illinois, in 1908. In the face of all this, many black activists
- lost patience with Booker T. Washington’s silence.
- When: August 1914
- who: germany, austria hungary, and the ottoman empire.
- why: joined when russia was fighting with the austria hungary for the ottoman
- empire and when the princip assassinated granz ferdinand, the heir to
- the austro hungarian throne.
- so what: the great war beagn later turning into ww1 and the side the us joined the allied powers.
- google: Who/What? Central Powers consisted of Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary (later on also Bulgaria)
- Why? Formed as an alliance between countries
- to promise military support between the nations.
civilian conservation corps
- Who/What? Congress
- created the Home Owners Loan Corporation which then set up CCC in order to
- mobilized 250,000 young men to do reforestation and conservation work.
- Why? Goal
- was to provide jobs rather than handouts
- So What/Significance? It gave many workers jobs (low pay but free training and board) and
- taught many unmarried men and women to work and live independently.
clayton anti-trust act
- Who/What? Amending with the Sherman Act, the definition of
- illegal practices was left flexible, subject to the test of whether an action
- “substantially lessen[ed] competition or tend[ed] to create a monopoly.”
- Why? to
- make modifications to the federal anti-trust laws to prohibit certain types
- of conduct between competitive
- What/Significance? outlined enforcement and other policies to
- protect form monopolistic practices in companies.
- when: 1930-1941
- what: is a severe drought afflicted the states of ok tx NM, CO, AR, KA.
- why: human creation. farmers pushed the agricultural frontiers beyond its natural limits stripping the land of its native vegetation and destroying the ecology of teh plains. rain stopped and winds came with thich clouds of dust. .
- so what: crops where ruined and their debts unpaid, and many moved to california to find jobs that paid very little and lived in horrible conditions.
- google: Who/What? A period with severe dust storms that stripped
- the Great Plains away
- Caused by droughts, winds, and poor farming practices
- What/Significance? One of the
- factors that caused the Great Depression
- when: december 1917
- who: congress passed it as a law
- what:prohibited the manufacture, sale or transporation of intoxicating liquors anywhere in the US
- why: wartime progressive movement reform.
- so what: it stood is an example of the wideing influence of the national state on matters of economic policy and personal behavior. it was finally repealed by the 21th amendment in 1933
- google: Who/What? SECTION 1. After one year from the ratification of this
- article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors
- within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the
- United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for
- beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.
- SECTION 2.The Congress and the several
- states shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate
- legislation. SECTION 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have
- been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the
- several states, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the
- date of the submission hereof to the states by the Congress.
- Why? There was believed to be a direct link between
- alcohol and many antisocial behaviors, like child abuse and domestic violence.
- Another famous concern was that of Henry Ford, who believed that alcohol had a
- negative impact on labor productivity. Anti-German sentiment during WWI helped
- catapult the issue into law.
- What/Significance? Americans drank
- less after the 18th Amendment took effect, but those who continued to drink
- gave the decade its reputation as the Roaring Twenties
federal reserve act
- Who/What? The act delegated operational functions to twelve
- district reserve banks funded and controlled by their member banks. The Act was
- signed into law by Pres Woodrow Wilson.
- Why? Because
- it gave the nation a banking system that was resistant to financial panic.
- Prior to 1913, panics were common occurrences as investors were unsure about
- the safety of their deposits.
- What/Significance? In one stroke,
- the act strengthened the banking system and, to a modest degree, reined in Wall
filipino american war
- Who/What? A war between United States and Philippines. Once
- Emilio Aguinaldo was captured, Philippines surrendered and the war was
- United States had agreed on annexation however Philippines did not want to be a
- protectorate of United States. Philippines were wanting independence.
- So What/Significance? America found themselves resorting to the same
- tactics that the Spanish used which included starving the countryside. Also
- significantly, it took over 40 years for Philippines to finally have their
- independence (US finally said they could self-govern themselves).
good neightboor policy
- Who/What? Secretary of State Cordell Hull implemented the
- policy in which agreed not to interfere with sovereign nations. It renounced
- the use of military force and armed intervention in Latin America.
- Why? In
- order to avoid forming more enemies (mostly Latin America)
- So What/Significance?
- Repealed Platt Amendment, a relic of the
- Spanish-American War, which asserted the United States the right to intervene
- in Cuba’s affairs.
- Who/What? A short-lived movement where many works of art
- and literature emanated from Harlem, the center of African American life in New
- York City.
- Why? Because creative expression was one of the
- few avenues available to African Americans in the early twentieth century when
- economic opportunities were scarce and racism still rampant
- What/Significance? It redefined how
- America, and the world, viewed the African-American population. It stood as
- “the symbol of liberty and the Promised Land to Negroes everywhere”
- Who/What? A woman reformer who believed that women should
- stand for peace. Jane Addams along with Ellen Gates established Hull House on
- Chicago’s West Side in 1889. She did not regard Hull House as a specifically
- female enterprise. But, of course, in her personal odyssey, it had mattered that
- she was a daughter, not a son.
- When? During the suffrage movement was when she was
- most importantly mentioned; Chapter 20 Progressive Era
- Why? Because
- she believed that women should stand for peace.
- What/Significance? Possibly contributed to 19th Amendment -suffrage
- for women- being finally to United States Constitution [----not positive on
- this though]
lend lease act
- Who/What? Roosevelt convinced Congress to pass the Lend-Lease
- Act. This legislation authorized the president to “lease, lend, or otherwise
- dispose of” arms and other equipment to Britain or any country whose defense
- was considered vital to the security of the United States.
- Why? Because Britain no longer able to pay cash for
- arms but for Roosevelt, their survival was viewed as the key to American
- What/Significance? The
- implementation of lend-lease marked the unofficial entrance of the United
- States into the European war.
- Who/What? Britain and France again capitulated, agreeing to
- let Germany annex the Sudetenland--a German-speaking border area of
- Czechoslovakia-- in return for Hitler’s pledge to seek no more territory.
When? September 1938 (if Munich Conference)
- Why? Because
- of the violation of a Versailles Treaty and tried to understand Hitler’s
- So What/Significance? However, Hitler’s forces within merely six months
- had already overrun the rest of Czechoslovakia and were threatening to march
- into Poland (broke his promise). France and Britain, realizing that their
- policy of appeasement had been disastrous, warned Hitler that further expansion
- meant war (which happened after he launched a blitzkrieg against Poland)
national labor relations act
- Who/What? AKA the Wagner Act. Promotes collective
- bargaining between workers and employers
- Why? Because
- Roosevelt wants to emphasize on social justice: the use of national legislation
- to enhance the power of working people and the economic security and welfare of
- the old, the disabled, and the unemployed.
- What/Significance? Protected rights
- of workers to unionization. Made it illegal for employers to fire a worker
- because they join a union. Another significance is that the Wagner Act did not
- apply to farm workers only industrial workers.
- Who/What? A series of Neutrality Acts were passed in 1935,
- 1936, and 1937- these laws placed an embargo on exports of war materials to
- belligerents. It also warned the U.S. citizens not to travel on belligerent
- vessels, prohibited loans to belligerent nations, and instituted the cash and
- carry policy which meant that nations that were seeking to trade with the U.S.
- had to purchase the goods they wanted as well as provide their own vessels in
- which they could be shipped out to their country.
- Who/What? The right of citizens of the United States to
- vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on
- account of sex.
- Congress shall have power to enforce this
- article by appropriate legislation.
- So What/Significance?
- Gained a lot of support during WWI
open door policy
- Who/What? Secretary of State John Hay. This policy had two
- parts: the first open door note from Hay to China claimed the right of equal
- trade access (open door) for all nations wanting to do business with China. The
- second open door note came after the Boxer Rebellion (which was brought about
- because a small group of Chinese nationalists-the Boxers- rebelled against the
- foreigners) was put down by American troops in China. It insisted that the rest
- of the world recognize China as a sovereign and independent nation; essentially
- China must ‘be preserved as a territorial and administrative entity’.
- Why? Because
- United States was interested in trading with China. .
- What/Significance? A loop hole for
- United States to trade with China without having to interfere with other
- sovereign powers (because United States knew that if they tried to compete with
- these powers then it would only lead to trouble)
- Who/What? In 1919 Woodrow
- Wilson appointed A.Mitchell Palmer as his attorney general. Palmer recruited
- John Hoover as his special assistant and
- together they used the Espionage Act (1917) and the Sedition Act (1918) to
- launch a campaign against radicals
- Why? Palmer believed that
- Anarchists socialists, communists wanted to destroy US through foreign ideology
- and diluting the culture
- So What/Significance? It lead to an explosive racial violence after
- the 1920s. Over 10,000 suspected communists and anarchists were arrested.
- Palmer and Hoover found no evidence of a proposed revolution but large number
- of these suspects were held without trial for a long time and some of them were
- deported.. It lead to the revival of KKK and the immigration restrictions
Who/What? New Deal school of Progressive Liberal thought
When? 1930’s (During the New Deal progression)
- Why? Believed
- that a moderate amount of government intervention won’t sufficiently interfere
- with capitalist free enterprise but can be used to the benefit of consumers and
- working people
- What/Significance? Safeguarded
- individual freedom and opportunity by bolstering the authority of the state and
- federal governments to control large business corporations.
- Who/What? A case in which John T. Scopes, a high school
- biology teacher, taught the principles of evolution to his class and faced a
- jail sentence for doing so.
- Purposely to attract national attention because Clarence Darrow, a famous
- criminal lawyer, defended Scopes and William Jennings Bryan, the three-time
- Democratic presidential candidate and ardent fundamentalist, spoke for the
- What/Significance? Highlighted
- secular value
second industrial revolution
- Who/What? A period with new industries creating new
- consumer goods
- What/Significance? Positive effect
- on working class. More consumption means better for standard of living
securities and exchange commission
- Who/What? Congress established to regulate the stock market
- by disclosing information of stock being sold. The commission had broad powers
- to regulate purchase of stock.
- Why? Because
- insider trading, fraud, and reckless speculation had triggered the financial
- panic of 1929 (Wall Street Crash)
- What/Significance? Helped
- businesses in the long run
sedition act of 1918
- what;prohibited speech writing and behavior that might incite or provoke or encourage resistance to te us or promote the cause of its enemies
- google:Who/What? Extended the Espionage Act of 1917 . The law
- made it a crime to criticize by speech or writing the government or
- Why? It
- was against 1st amendment. Certain speeches, press, or expressions that would
- cast the government or war time efforts in a negative way was considered an
- offense, so you could get arrested/in trouble. The Supreme Court upheld The
- Sedition Act of 1918 constitutional.
- So What/Significance?
- so what:
- Who/What? The Senate of the United States shall be composed
- of two Senators from each state, elected by the people thereof, for six years;
- and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each state shall have the
- qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state
- When vacancies
- happen in the representation of any state in the Senate, the executive
- authority of such state shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies:
- Provided, that the legislature of any state may empower the executive thereof
- to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election
- as the legislature may direct.
- This amendment shall not be so construed
- as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid
- as part of the Constitution.
sheppards towner act
- Who/What? The first federally funded health-care
- legislation, the act lowered infant mortality by subsidizing medical clinics,
- prenatal educational programs, and visiting nurse projects.
- Why? The
- act was a response to the lack of adequate medical care for women and children,
- including reports that at least 80% of all pregnant women did not receieve
- adequate pre-natal care. The deficit became especially noticeable during WWI
- when many potential recruits were rejected for military service due to
- childhood diseases.
- What/Significance? Many men in
- Congress supported the act because they feared the voting power of newly
- enfranchised women. By the late 1920’s, when it became clear that women did not
- vote as a bloc, Congress cut off appropriations of the program.
- Who/What? The Congress shall have power to lay and collect
- taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the
- several states, and without regard to any census or enumeration.
- What/Significance? exempted income
- taxes from constitutional requirements regarding direct taxes
social security act
- Who/What? Imposed compulsory taxes on workers and forced
- families to comply with ever more complicated bureaucratic regulations.
- Why? Created
- during the Second New Deal (1935-1938) once again a second initiative of
- Roosevelt to emphasize social justice: the use of national legislation to
- enhance the power of working people and the economic security welfare of the
- old, the disabled, and the unemployed.
- What/Significance? The Social
- Security Act was a milestone in the creation of an American welfare state.
spanish american war
- Who/What? United States and Spain go to war as a result of
- American intervention in the Cuban war of Independence. that wasn’t fought in
- the US or Spain
- Why? US
- became involved after hearing brutal stories about what was going on in Cuba.
- Cuba was resenting Spanish control fighting for independence and rebellion
- movements. President Cleveland didn’t want to interfere, but the US people (Led
- by Rooselvelt and Lodge) did after hearing “yellow journalism” about how
- destructive and bloody it had gotten on both sides. United States then sent out
- USS Maine which eventually blew up. After USS Maine blew up, United States
- wrongly accused Spain for destroying their ship and declared war.. Battle
- lasted 10 weeks, US Navy dominated offshore and on land. Also the fact that US
- was interested in Cuba even before Civil War
- So What/Significance? This marked the beginning of the United States
- becoming a world power or international empire
us revolt in hawaii 1893
- Who/What? The White population staged a revolted against
- Queen “L” in 1893.
- Why? British and American population that wanted
- Hawaii to as part of Annexation had friends in Congress for plans in Annexation
- What/Significance? Eventually lead
- to a new Constitution for the Republic of Hawaii which included provisions of
- American Annexation of Hawaii. United States got around Cleveland by Parliament
- deciding this and not restore the monarchy. Annexed Hawaii in 1898.
washintong armaments conference
- Who/What? Conference that revealed American strategy in the
- Why? In
- order to avoid huge U.S. naval expenditures and to prevent Japan from expanding
- its naval forces and becoming the dominant nation in East Asia.
workds progress administration
- Who/What? WPA
- combated the depression by providing jobs rather than relief. WPA put workers
- directly on the federal payroll.
- Why? To
- help with the drastic unemployment rates during the Great Depression
- What/Significance? Provided 40% of
- unemployed with work
social walfare liberalism
- Who/What? Increased the national scope of national
- legislation, creating a centralized administrative system, and institute new
- programs (ex: Social Security and Medicare), which increased the responsibility
- of the national government for the welfare of every American citizen.
- Why? Because
- the nation was entering the fourth year of the worse economic contraction in
- its history so Roosevelt promised strong presidential leadership to get the
- nation to take action now.
- What/Significance? Redefined what
- was appropriate for government to do to help the economy. Expanded the
- individuals right to government assistance
- Who/What? Arthur Zimmerman, the German foreign secretary
- urged the Mexican government to
- create some sort of diversion to get the
- US distracted from being involved in the World War, then Germany will help
- Mexico regain land it lost from the US in the Mexican War
- To get Mexico to distract the US
- So What/Significance? Zimmerman Telegram was intercepted and given to
- Woodrow Wilson which quickened the US’ entry into WWI. inflamed anti-German
- sentiment throughout the nation and essentially why we declared war.