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What is thermodynamics?
All molecules of a substance move; when they move heat is produced due to what?
- mechanical - friction
- chemical - metabolism
- electricity - friction/resistance
What is the 1st law of thermodynamics?
conservation of energy (capacity to do work)
energy cannot be created or destroyed
What is the 2nd law of thermodynamics?
heat ALWAYS flows from hot objects to cold objects
hot pack to tissues
ankle inflammation to cold pack
What are the 4 methods of heat transfer?
What is conduction?
transmitted between 2 objects in direct contact with each other
HP, CP, paraffin wax
What is the movement of a mass, gas, or liquid (medium has 2 different temps of body tissue your treating)?
What is radiation?
from hot objects to area without a median getting heating
hot object to cold objects without touching and medium doesnt get heated
Heat developed in tissue by passage through tissue of electrical current
(converting 1 type of energy into heat), is known as what?
- ultrasound (sound waves to heat)
What is the quantity of heat that will raise the temp of 1gram of a substance by 1degree c?
What both at the same temp, materials at a high specific heat hold more what what materials at low specific heat?
Tissues at what specific heat require more energy to achieve the same temp increase than tissues with a what specific heat?
What is the specific heat and temp of paraffin wax?
What is the specific heat and highest temp used of water?
What is thermal conductivity?
heat transfers from 1 place to another by a conductor
Good thermal conductors have what type of heat value?
Poor thermal conductors are considered what?
Tile is colder, this makes it a better what?
Carpet is warmer, this makes it a better what?
What are 4 ways heat can be loss?
- 1. radiation (heat radiates off object)
- 2. conduction(heat loss by direct contact)
- 3. convection (heat through a medium)
- 4. evaporation (sweat)
What are 4 ways heat can be loss through the body?
- 1. through skin
- 2. respiration
- 3. urine
- 4. feces
Amounts of heat loss has to do with various factors such as?
- air movement (increased air movement - greater loss of heat) fans
What are some factors that heat is dependant on?
- 1. source of heat
- 2. type of heat
- 3. frequency of treatment
- 4. size of area
- 5. age of patient
- 6. duaration of treatment
- 7. temperature difference
- 8. amount of penetration
A hot pack is what type of heat transfer?
What type of heat transfer is paraffin wax?
A cold pack is what type of heat transfer?
Ultrasound is what type of heat transfer?
What type of heat transfer is diathermy?
Whirlpool is what 2 types of heat transfer?
Infrared is what 2 types of heat transfer?
What type of heat transfer is fluidotherapy?