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two recurring consonant sounds
Clear contrasting relationship
List in order of importance
repetition of one word
recall statement, make it stronger
Use of conjugtion between each word
Brief historical reference
Pass over something, asserts it
Repeats a key word
Attribute of certain famous person
Comparison w/o like or as
Anticipate objection, override it
Repeating a word or phrases, but adding more to it
Doubt about an idea, offers alternatives, but not sure
Repetition after a key phrase
Citing an example
Image is close to subject
Question already answered
finishing a sentence with a different grammatical structure
stopping abruptly and leaving unfinished
Mention another fact to balance argument
Phrase that interrupts normal syntax
Idea emphasized over "repeated" phrase
Repeats last word of one phrase
Addresses person/thing directly
interrupts to explain context of a word
Departure from normal word order
Paradox reduced to two words
Quoting a wise saying to apply truth
compares two things, which are alike in several respects, for the purpose of explaining or clarifying some unfamiliar or difficult idea by showing how it is familiar
- a noun placed next to another noun to be described or defined by the appositive
- ex. Henry Jameson, the boss of teh operation, ...
- informally stated syllogism which omits either one of the premises or the conclusion
- ex. He is an American citizen, so he is entitled to due process (All americans blah)
The counterpart of understatement, exaggerates
- recurrent syntactical similarity
- ex. Quickly and happily he walked around the corner to buy the book
Comparison using like or as
- repetition of the same word at the beginning of phrases
- ex. To think on death it is a misery, to think on life it is a vanity, to think on the world is it verily, to think that here man hath no perfect bliss
- similar vowel sounds
- ex. A city that is set on a hill cannot be hid
- detailing parts, causes, effects, or consequences to make a point more forcibly
- ex. I love her eyes, her hair, her nose, her cheeks, her lips.
- Consists of raising one or more questions, and then proceeding to answer them
- ex. There is a striking and basic difference between a man's ability to imagine something and an animal's failure...Where is it that the animal falls short? We get a clue to the answer...
- writing successive independent clauses, with coordinating conjunctions, or not.
- ex. We walked to the top of the hill, and we sat down
- combining anaphora and epistrophe, so that one word or phrase is repeated at the beginning and another word or phrase is repeated at the end of successive phrases
- ex. To think clearly and rationally should be a major goal for man; but to think clearly and rationally is always the greatest difficulty faced by man
- placing a good point or benefit next to a fault criticism, or problem in order to reduce thhe impact or significance of the negative point
- ex. True, he always forgets my birthday, but he buys me presents all year round
- consists of omitting conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses
- ex. On his return he received medals, honors, treasures, titles, fame.
- repeats the beginning word of a clause or sentence at the end.
- ex. Water alone dug this giant canyon; yes, just plain water
- using subordination to show the relationship between clauses or phrases
- ex. They asked the question because they were curious
- ex. While I am in the world, I am the light of the world.
- consists of a word, phrase, or whole sentence inserted as an aside in the middle of another sentence
- ex. But the new calculations--and here we see the value of relying upon up to date information--showed that man-powered flight was possible with this design
- A type of metaphor in which the part stands for the whole, the whole for a part, etc.
- ex. Farmer Jones has two hundred head of cattle and three hired hands
- reversing the order of repeated words or phrases to intensify the final formulation, to present alternatives, or to show contrast
- ex. All work and no play is as harmful to mental health as all play and no work
- An extravagant, implied metaphor using words in an unusual way
- ex. I will speak daggers to her
- forms the counterpart to anaphora because the pepetition of the same word or words comes at the end of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences
- ex. Where affections bear rule, there reason is subdued, honesty is subdued, good will is subdued, and all things else that withstand evil, for ever are subdued.
- Denying the opposite or contrary of the word which otherwise would be used
- ex. Heat waves are common in the summer vs. Heat waves are not rare in the summer
metaphorically represents an animal or inanimate object as having human attributes
- deliberately expresses an idea as less important than it actually is
- ex. The 1906 San Fran earthquake interrupted business somewhat in the downtown area.