Lang devices

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Lang devices
2011-12-18 17:47:21
Lang devices

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  1. Alliteration
    two recurring consonant sounds
  2. Antithesis
    Clear contrasting relationship
  3. Climax
    List in order of importance
  4. Epizeuxis
    repetition of one word
  5. Metanoia
    recall statement, make it stronger
  6. Polysyndeton
    Use of conjugtion between each word
  7. Allusion
    Brief historical reference
  8. Apophasis
    Pass over something, asserts it
  9. Conduplicatio
    Repeats a key word
  10. Eponym
    Attribute of certain famous person
  11. Metaphor
    Comparison w/o like or as
  12. Procatalepsis
    Anticipate objection, override it
  13. Amplification
    Repeating a word or phrases, but adding more to it
  14. Aporia
    Doubt about an idea, offers alternatives, but not sure
  15. Diacope
    Repetition after a key phrase
  16. Exemplem
    Citing an example
  17. Metonymy
    Image is close to subject
  18. Rhetorical Question
    Question already answered
  19. Anacoluthon
    finishing a sentence with a different grammatical structure
  20. Aposiopesis
    stopping abruptly and leaving unfinished
  21. Dirimens Copulatio
    Mention another fact to balance argument
  22. Sentential Adverb
    Phrase that interrupts normal syntax
  23. Onomatopoeia
  24. Scesis Onomation
    Idea emphasized over "repeated" phrase
  25. Anadiplosis
    Repeats last word of one phrase
  26. Apostrophe
    Addresses person/thing directly
  27. Distinctio
    interrupts to explain context of a word
  28. Hyperbaton
    Departure from normal word order
  29. Oxymoron
    Paradox reduced to two words
  30. Sententia
    Quoting a wise saying to apply truth
  31. Analogy
    compares two things, which are alike in several respects, for the purpose of explaining or clarifying some unfamiliar or difficult idea by showing how it is familiar
  32. Appositive
    • a noun placed next to another noun to be described or defined by the appositive
    • ex. Henry Jameson, the boss of teh operation, ...
  33. Enthymeme
    • informally stated syllogism which omits either one of the premises or the conclusion
    • ex. He is an American citizen, so he is entitled to due process (All americans blah)
  34. Hyperbole
    The counterpart of understatement, exaggerates
  35. Parallelism
    • recurrent syntactical similarity
    • ex. Quickly and happily he walked around the corner to buy the book
  36. Simile
    Comparison using like or as
  37. Anaphora
    • repetition of the same word at the beginning of phrases
    • ex. To think on death it is a misery, to think on life it is a vanity, to think on the world is it verily, to think that here man hath no perfect bliss
  38. Assonance
    • similar vowel sounds
    • ex. A city that is set on a hill cannot be hid
  39. Enumeratio
    • detailing parts, causes, effects, or consequences to make a point more forcibly
    • ex. I love her eyes, her hair, her nose, her cheeks, her lips.
  40. Hypophora
    • Consists of raising one or more questions, and then proceeding to answer them
    • ex. There is a striking and basic difference between a man's ability to imagine something and an animal's failure...Where is it that the animal falls short? We get a clue to the answer...
  41. Parataxis
    • writing successive independent clauses, with coordinating conjunctions, or not.
    • ex. We walked to the top of the hill, and we sat down
  42. Symploce
    • combining anaphora and epistrophe, so that one word or phrase is repeated at the beginning and another word or phrase is repeated at the end of successive phrases
    • ex. To think clearly and rationally should be a major goal for man; but to think clearly and rationally is always the greatest difficulty faced by man
  43. Antanagoge
    • placing a good point or benefit next to a fault criticism, or problem in order to reduce thhe impact or significance of the negative point
    • ex. True, he always forgets my birthday, but he buys me presents all year round
  44. Asyndeton
    • consists of omitting conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses
    • ex. On his return he received medals, honors, treasures, titles, fame.
  45. Epanalepsis
    • repeats the beginning word of a clause or sentence at the end.
    • ex. Water alone dug this giant canyon; yes, just plain water
  46. Hypotaxis
    • using subordination to show the relationship between clauses or phrases
    • ex. They asked the question because they were curious
    • ex. While I am in the world, I am the light of the world.
  47. Parenthesis
    • consists of a word, phrase, or whole sentence inserted as an aside in the middle of another sentence
    • ex. But the new calculations--and here we see the value of relying upon up to date information--showed that man-powered flight was possible with this design
  48. Synecdoche
    • A type of metaphor in which the part stands for the whole, the whole for a part, etc.
    • ex. Farmer Jones has two hundred head of cattle and three hired hands
  49. Antimetabole
    • reversing the order of repeated words or phrases to intensify the final formulation, to present alternatives, or to show contrast
    • ex. All work and no play is as harmful to mental health as all play and no work
  50. Catachresis
    • An extravagant, implied metaphor using words in an unusual way
    • ex. I will speak daggers to her
  51. Epistrophe
    • forms the counterpart to anaphora because the pepetition of the same word or words comes at the end of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences
    • ex. Where affections bear rule, there reason is subdued, honesty is subdued, good will is subdued, and all things else that withstand evil, for ever are subdued.
  52. Litotes
    • Denying the opposite or contrary of the word which otherwise would be used
    • ex. Heat waves are common in the summer vs. Heat waves are not rare in the summer
  53. Personification
    metaphorically represents an animal or inanimate object as having human attributes
  54. Understatement
    • deliberately expresses an idea as less important than it actually is
    • ex. The 1906 San Fran earthquake interrupted business somewhat in the downtown area.