PY399 Test #1

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PY399 Test #1
2011-10-30 22:53:27
abnormal psychology

chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
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  1. DSM-IV-TR Classification axes (5)
    • Clinical syndromes
    • Personality disorders
    • General medical conditions
    • Psychosocial and environmental problems
    • Global assessment of functioning
  2. Biological perspective in which abnormal behaviour is viewed as symptomatic of underlying illness
    medical model
  3. Perceptions that occur in the absence of an external stimulus that are confused with reality
  4. Criteria for determining abnormality (6)
    • Behaviour is unusual
    • Behaviour is socially unacceptable or violates social norms
    • Perception or interpretation of reality is faulty
    • The person is in significant personal distress
    • Behaviour is maladaptive or self-defeating
    • Behaviour is dangerous
  5. Having irrational suspicions
  6. Firmly held but inaccurate beliefs that persist despite evidence that they have no basis in reality
  7. Form of delusional thinking characterized by false beliefs that one is being persecuted or victimized by others
    ideas of persecution
  8. The model that explains abnormal behaviour in terms of supernatural forces
    demonological model
  9. A 19th century treatment philosophy that emphasized that hospitalized mental patients should be treated with care and understanding in ap pleasant environment
    moral therapy
  10. Group of antipsychotic drugs or "major tranquillizers" used in the treatment of schizophrenia
  11. Steps in the scientific method (4)
    • Formulating a research question
    • Framing the research question in the form of a hypothesis
    • Testing the hypothesis
    • Drawing conclusions about the hypothesis
  12. Method of scientific research in which the behaviour of subjects is carefully and unobtrusively observed and measured in their natural environments
    naturalistic-observation method
  13. Relationship or association between two or more variables
  14. Statistical relationship between two variables such that increases in one variable are associated with increases in the other
    positive correlation
  15. Statistical relationship between two variables such that increases in one variable are associated with decreases in the other
    negative correlation
  16. Research study in which subjects are followed over time
    longitudinal study
  17. Relationship between tow factors or events in which one is necessary and sufficient to bring about the other
    causal relationship
  18. factor in an experiment that is manipulated so its effects can be measured or observed
    independent variable
  19. measure of outcome in a scientific study that is assumed to be dependent on the effects of the independent variable
    dependent variable
  20. A state of being unaware of whether or not one has received a treatment
  21. Method of research involved in tracking the rates of occurence of particular disorders among different groups
    epidemiological method
  22. Carefully drawn biography that is typically constructed on the basis of clinical interviews, observations, psychological tests, and, in some cases, historical records
    case study
  23. In behaviour therapy, a technique for helping a client acquire new behaviour by means of ahving the therapist or members of a therapy group demonstrate a target behaviour that is then imitated by a client
  24. In behaviour therapy, a practice opportunity in which a person enacts a desired response and receives feedback from others
  25. Freud
    psychodynamic model
  26. The causes of abnormal behaviours lie in the interplay of forces within the unconscious mind
    psychodynamic model
  27. Psychological problems may be rooted in the failures of society and lack of economic opportunity
    sociocultural models
  28. Concepts of health and illness may have different meanings in different cultures
    indiomatic concepts
  29. Abnormal behaviour patterns may take different forms in different cultures
    idiosyncratic customs
  30. Any substances or conditions, such as drugs, x-rays, and infectious diseases, that interfere with normal prenatal development
  31. Any substances or conditions, such as pesticides, heavy metals, or ionizing radiation, that produce heritable changes in cellular DNA
  32. The sum total of inherited and acquired molecular variations to the genome that lead to changes in gene regulation without changing the DNA sequence of the genome itself
  33. The study of the heritable and acquired changes in gene regulation (phenotype) that occur without affecting DNA sequence (genotype)
  34. nerve cells
  35. cell body
  36. Root-like structures at the end of neuron that receive nerve impulses from other neurons
  37. Long, thin part of a neuron along which nervous impulses travel
  38. In neuropsychology, the small branching structures found at the tips of axons
  39. Swollen ending of an axon terminal
  40. Chemical substance that serves as a type of messenger by transmitting neural impulses from one neuron to another
  41. Junction between the terminal knob of one neuron and the dendrite or soma of another through which nerve impulses pass
  42. Part of a dendrite on the receiving neron that is structured to receive a neruotransmitter
    receptor site
  43. Area of the hindbrain involved in the regulation of heartbeat and respiration
  44. Brain structure, located in the hindbrain, which is involved in respiration
  45. Part of the hindbrain involved in co-ordination and balance
  46. Part of the brain involved in the processes of attention, sleep, and arousal
    reticular activating system
  47. Structure in the brain involved in relaying sensory information to the cortex and in processes relating to sleep and attention
  48. Structure in the lower middle part of the brain involved in regulating body temperature, emotion, and motivation
  49. Group of forebrain structures, consisting of the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, and hypothalamus that are involved in processes of learning and memory as well as basic drives involving hunger, thirst, sex, and aggression
    timbic system
  50. Plays a key role in the formation of memories
  51. Involved in the regulation of defensive emotions like fear and anger
  52. Ganglia located between the thalamus and the cerebrum in the brain that are involved in the coordination of motor activity
    basal ganglia
  53. Large mass of the forebrain, consisting of two hemispheres
  54. Wrinkled surface area of the cerebrum (grey matter) responsible for higher mental functions
    cerebral cortex
  55. Thick bundle of fibres that connects the two himispheres of the brain
    corpus callosum
  56. Division of the peripheral nervous system that relays information from the sense organs to the brain and transmits messages from the brain to the skeletal muscles, resulting in body movements
    somatic nervous system
  57. Division of the peripheral nervous system that regulates the activities of glands and involuntary functions, such as respiration, heartbeat, and digestion
    autonomic nervous system
  58. The study of how hereditary and environmental factors interact ot produce behaviour
    behavioural genetics
  59. The unconscious psychic structure that is present at birth
  60. The psychic structure corresponding to the concept of the self
  61. The psychic structure that represents the incorporation of the moral values of the parents and important others and floods the ego with guilt and shame when it falls short of making those standards
  62. Defence Mechanisms in Psychodynamic Theory (8)
    • Repression
    • Regression
    • Displacement
    • Denial
    • Reaction formation
    • Rationalization
    • Projection
    • Sublimation
  63. Expulsion from awareness of unacceptable ideas or motives
  64. The return of behaviour that is typical of earlier stages of development
  65. The transfer of unacceptable impulses away from threatening persons toward safer or less threatening objects
  66. Refusal to recognize a threatening impulse or desire
  67. Behaving in a way that is the opposite of one's true wishes or desires in order to keep these repressed
    reaction formation
  68. The use of self-justifications to explain unacceptable behaviour
  69. Imposing one's own impulses or wishes onto another person
  70. The channelling of unacceptable impulses into socially constructive pursuits
  71. Jung's psychodynamic theory, which emphasizes such concepts as the collective unconscious, the existence of archtypes, and the notion of the self as a unifying force of personality
    analytical psychology
  72. In Carl Jung's theory, the hypothesized storehouse of archetypes and racial memories
    collective unconscious
  73. Jung's concept of primitive images or concepts that reside in the collective unconscious
  74. In Adler's view, the feelings of inferirority believed to be a central source of motivation
    inferiority complex
  75. In Adler's theory, a term describing the desire to compenste for feelings of inferiority
    drive to superiority
  76. In Adler's theory, the self-aware part of the personality that strives to achieve its potential
    creative self
  77. Psychodynamic theory developed by Alfred Adler
    individual psychology
  78. Erikson's Psychosocial Stages (8)
    • Trust vs mistrust
    • Autonomy vs shame and doubt
    • Initiative vs guilt
    • Industry vs role inferiority
    • Identity vs role confusion
    • Intimacy vs isolation
    • Generativity vs stagnation
    • Ego integrity vs despair
  79. a predisposition or vulnerability
  80. A diathesis increases an individual's vulnerability to develop the disorder in response to stressful life circumstances
    diathesis-stress model
  81. A conceptual model that emplasizes that human behaviour is linked ot complex interactions among biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors
    biopsychosocial model
  82. Behaviour therapy technique for overcoming phobias by means of exposure (in imagination or by means of slides) to progressively more fearful stimuli while one remains deeply relaxed
    systematic desensitization
  83. In behaviour therapy, a method of overcoming fears through a stepwise process of direct exposure to increasingly fearful stimuli
    gradual exposure
  84. Carl Roger's method of psychotheratpy, emphasizing the establishment of a warm accepting therapeutic relationship that frees clients to engage in a process of self-exploration and self-acceptance
    person-centred therapy
  85. Psychological perspectives (4)
    • Psychodynamic models
    • Learning models
    • Humanistic-Existential models
    • Cognitive-Behavioural models
  86. Theories based on the belief that psychological problems are derived from unconscious psychological conflicts that can be traced to childhood
    psychodynamic models
  87. The view that abnormal behaviour can be described in terms of not learning or underlearning appropriate, adaptive behaviours
    learning models
  88. Theories that focus onn self-actualization and living authentically
    Humanistic-Existential models
  89. Focus on the cognitions - the thoughhts, beliefs, expectations, and attitudes - that accompany and may underlie abnormal behaviour
    Cognitive-Behavioural models
  90. The view that the ccauses of abnormal behaviour may reside in the failures of society rather than in the person
    sociocultural perspectives
  91. The theory that human behaviour is linked to complex interactions among biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors
    biopsychosocial models
  92. Methods of Treatment (9)
    • mental health professionals
    • biological therapies
    • psychodynamic therapies
    • behaviour therapy
    • humanistic-existential therapies
    • cognitive-behavioural therapies
    • eclectic therapy
    • group, family, and marital therapy
    • evaluating methods of treatment
  93. cluster of symptoms that is characteristic of a particular disorder
  94. consistency of test responses across time, as measured by test-retest reliability
    temporal stability
  95. reliability as measured by the cohesiveness or interrelationships of the items on a test or scale
    internal consistency
  96. measure of internal consistency or reliability
    coefficient alpha
  97. measure of reliability of a test based on the agreement between raters
    interrater reliability
  98. degree to which the content of a test or measure represents the content domain of the construct it purports to measure
    content validity
  99. the degree to which the content of a test or measure bears an apparent or obvious relationship to the constructs or traits it is purported to measure
    face validity
  100. the degree to which a test or instrument correlates with an independent, external criterion representing the construct or trait that the test or instrumennt is intended to measure
    criterion validity
  101. Methods of Assessment (8)
    • The clinical interview
    • Psychological tests of intelligence and personality
    • Neuropsychological Assessment
    • Behavioural Assessment
    • Cognitive Assessment
    • Physiological Measurement
    • Concept of response systems
    • Probing the workings of the brain
  102. The mental, emotional, or physical adaptation or adjustment an organism makes in the face of any tangible or perceived pressure or demand
  103. Maladaptive reaction to an identified stressor or stressors that occurs shortly following exposure to the stressor(s) and results in impaired functioning or signs of emotional distress that exceed what would normally be expected in thhe situation
    adjustment disorder
  104. In Hans Selye's view, the body's three-stage response to states of prolonged or intense stress
    general adaptation syndrome
  105. Stages of the general adaptation syndrome (3)
    • Alarm reaction
    • Stage of resistance
    • Stage of exhaustion
  106. the study of causality
  107. Belief that people are genetically prepared to acquire fear responses to certain classes of stimuli
    prepared conditioning
  108. fear of fear
    anxiety sensitivity
  109. Cognitive therapy method that involves replacing irrational or sself-defeating thoughts and attitudes with rational alternatives
    cognitive restructuring
  110. Types of anxiety disorders (7)
    • panic disorder
    • agoraphobia
    • generalized anxiety disorder
    • phobic disorders
    • obsessive-compulsive disorders
    • posttraumatic stress disorder
    • acute stress disorder
  111. Dissociative disorder in which a person has two or more distinct or alternative personalities
    dissociative identity disorder
  112. 4 major dissociative disorders
    • dissociative identity disorder
    • dissociative amnesia
    • dissociative fugue
    • depersonalization disorder
  113. disorder in which a person experiences memory losses in the absence of any identifiable organic cause (general knowledge and skills are usually retained)
    dissociative amnesia
  114. faking illness so as to avoid or escape work or other duties, or to obtain benefits
  115. disorder in which one suddenly flies from one's life situation, travels to a new location, assumes a new identity, and has amnesia for past personal material
    dissociative fugue
  116. feelings of unreality or detachment from one's self or one's body
  117. loss of the sense of reality of one's surroundings
  118. Disorders in which people complain of physical (somatic) problems, although no physical abnormality can be found
    somatoform disorders
  119. Type of somatoform disorder characterized by loss or impairment of physical function in the absense of any organic causes that might account for the changes
    conversion disorder
  120. Type of somatoform disorder involving recurrent multiple complaints that cannot be explained by any clear physical causes
    somatization disorder
  121. the relief from anxiety obtained through the development of a neurotic symptom
    primary gains
  122. side benefits associated with neuroses or other disorders, such as expressions of sympathy and increased attention from others, and release from ordinary responsibilities
    secondary gains