psych 11- 15

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psych 11- 15
2011-10-27 23:49:03

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  1. Memory
    ability to retain information over time thorugh three processes: encoding, storing, and retrieving.
  2. Encoding
    refers to making mental representations of information so that it can be placed into our memories.
  3. Sensory memory
    an intial process that recieves and holds environmental info in its raw form for a brief period of time, from an instant to several seconds.
  4. Short-term
    another process that can hold limited amound of info an average of 7 items for 2 to 30 seconds.
  5. Long Term
    process of storing almost unlimited amounts of information over long periods of time. Unlimited amounts of information for an unlimited amound of time.
  6. Iconic memory
    form of sensory memory that automatically holds visual info for about quarter of a second or more.
  7. Echoic memory
    sensory memory that holds auditory information for 1 or 2 seconds.Recalling back words or sounds
  8. Interference
    keeps us from hearing more than 2 things at once. When new information enters short term and overwrites out information that is already there.
  9. chunking
    grouping individual things together so you can remember more things.
  10. Primary
    Remembering information that was at the beginning
  11. Recency
    remembering information that was at the end.
  12. Recall
    Able to recall without question
  13. Recognition
    Able to recall with question
  14. Nodes
    are memory files that contain related info organized arund a specific topic.
  15. hierarchy.
    arrangement of nodes or files in a certain order.
  16. Organization of Hierarchy
    At the bottom are nodes with concrete info which are connected to nodes with somewhat more specific info which in turn are connected to nodes with general or abstract information
  17. Forgetting curve
    measures the amount of previously learned information that subjects can recall or recognize across time.
  18. Forgetting
    inability to retrieve info
  19. hippocampus
    it's like the "Save" command on your computer. This transfers words, facts, events from short-term into permanent long term.
  20. Psychometric
    measures cognitive abilities that are thought to be involved in intellectual performance.
  21. Two-Factor theory
    intelligence has two factors: a general mental ability, g, which represents what different cognitive tasks habe in common, plus specific factors, s, which include specific mental abilities.
  22. Galton belived
    To be intelligent then you had to have intelligent relatives, it was inherited. He measured people's heads and recorded the speed of their reactions to various stimuli
  23. First standarized test was
    Binet- simon intelligence scale, it contained items arranged in order of increasing difficulty.
  24. Most commonly used IQ test
  25. If you're IQ score is 65 or below then
    you are considered mentally retarded.
  26. Cognitive approach
    one method of studying how we process, sore and use information and how this info influences what we noticed, percieve, learn, remember, believe and feel.
  27. Concept
    is a way to group or classify objects, events, animals, or people based on some features, traits, or charactertistics that they all share in common
  28. Prototype
    says that you form a concept by creating a mental image that is based on the average characteristics of an object. If you see a picture of an animal that is like a dog, you are going to say it's a dog by it's characteristics.
  29. Problem- solving
    searching for some rule, plan or strategy that results in our reaching a certain goal that is currently out of reach.
  30. Phonology
    specificies how we make the meaningful sounds that are used by a particular language.
  31. Phonemes
    are the basic sounds of consonants and vowels
  32. Morphology
    is the system that we use to group phonemes into meaningful combinations of sounds and words
  33. morpheme
    is the smallest meaningful combination of sounds in a language
  34. syntax or grammar
    set of tules that specifies how we combine words or form meaningful phrases and sentences
  35. semantics
    specifies the meanings of words or phrases when they appear in various sentences or contexts
  36. Motivation
    refers to the various physiological and psychological factors that cause us to act in a specific way at a particular time. You are energized, direct, and intense.
  37. instinct
    are innate tendencies that determine behavior.
  38. Incentive
    external. goals that can be either objects or thoughts that we learn to value and that we are motivated to obtain.
  39. need
  40. Entrinsic Motivation
    involves engaging in certain activies or behaviors that either reduce biological needs or help us obtain incentives or external rewards.
  41. Intrinsic Motivation
    engaging in vertain acitivies because the behaviors themselves are personally rewarding or because engaging in these activies fullfills our beliefs.
  42. Level 1 (Maslow):
    Biological Needs: Food, Water, Sex, Sleep.
  43. Maslow says:
    That we go in a certain order in life.
  44. Level 2 (Maslow):
    Safety needs: Protection from harm
  45. Level 3 (Maslow):
    Love and belonging needs: affiliation with others.
  46. Level 4 (Maslow):
    Esteem Needs: achievement, gaining approval
  47. Level 5 (Maslow):
    Self-actualization: fullfillment
  48. Gender identity
    sexual identity. feelings toward being a male or female.
  49. gender identity disorder
    When you feel like a gender on the inside but you're not that gender on the outside.
  50. Gender role
    When you act masculine or feminine according to your gender.
  51. Transsexuals have
    normal genetic makeup