ability to retain information over time thorugh three processes: encoding, storing, and retrieving.
refers to making mental representations of information so that it can be placed into our memories.
an intial process that recieves and holds environmental info in its raw form for a brief period of time, from an instant to several seconds.
another process that can hold limited amound of info an average of 7 items for 2 to 30 seconds.
process of storing almost unlimited amounts of information over long periods of time. Unlimited amounts of information for an unlimited amound of time.
form of sensory memory that automatically holds visual info for about quarter of a second or more.
sensory memory that holds auditory information for 1 or 2 seconds.Recalling back words or sounds
keeps us from hearing more than 2 things at once. When new information enters short term and overwrites out information that is already there.
grouping individual things together so you can remember more things.
Remembering information that was at the beginning
remembering information that was at the end.
Able to recall without question
Able to recall with question
are memory files that contain related info organized arund a specific topic.
arrangement of nodes or files in a certain order.
Organization of Hierarchy
At the bottom are nodes with concrete info which are connected to nodes with somewhat more specific info which in turn are connected to nodes with general or abstract information
measures the amount of previously learned information that subjects can recall or recognize across time.
inability to retrieve info
it's like the "Save" command on your computer. This transfers words, facts, events from short-term into permanent long term.
measures cognitive abilities that are thought to be involved in intellectual performance.
intelligence has two factors: a general mental ability, g, which represents what different cognitive tasks habe in common, plus specific factors, s, which include specific mental abilities.
To be intelligent then you had to have intelligent relatives, it was inherited. He measured people's heads and recorded the speed of their reactions to various stimuli
First standarized test was
Binet- simon intelligence scale, it contained items arranged in order of increasing difficulty.
Most commonly used IQ test
If you're IQ score is 65 or below then
you are considered mentally retarded.
one method of studying how we process, sore and use information and how this info influences what we noticed, percieve, learn, remember, believe and feel.
is a way to group or classify objects, events, animals, or people based on some features, traits, or charactertistics that they all share in common
says that you form a concept by creating a mental image that is based on the average characteristics of an object. If you see a picture of an animal that is like a dog, you are going to say it's a dog by it's characteristics.
searching for some rule, plan or strategy that results in our reaching a certain goal that is currently out of reach.
specificies how we make the meaningful sounds that are used by a particular language.
are the basic sounds of consonants and vowels
is the system that we use to group phonemes into meaningful combinations of sounds and words
is the smallest meaningful combination of sounds in a language
syntax or grammar
set of tules that specifies how we combine words or form meaningful phrases and sentences
specifies the meanings of words or phrases when they appear in various sentences or contexts
refers to the various physiological and psychological factors that cause us to act in a specific way at a particular time. You are energized, direct, and intense.
are innate tendencies that determine behavior.
external. goals that can be either objects or thoughts that we learn to value and that we are motivated to obtain.
involves engaging in certain activies or behaviors that either reduce biological needs or help us obtain incentives or external rewards.
engaging in vertain acitivies because the behaviors themselves are personally rewarding or because engaging in these activies fullfills our beliefs.
Level 1 (Maslow):
Biological Needs: Food, Water, Sex, Sleep.
That we go in a certain order in life.
Level 2 (Maslow):
Safety needs: Protection from harm
Level 3 (Maslow):
Love and belonging needs: affiliation with others.
Level 4 (Maslow):
Esteem Needs: achievement, gaining approval
Level 5 (Maslow):
sexual identity. feelings toward being a male or female.
gender identity disorder
When you feel like a gender on the inside but you're not that gender on the outside.
When you act masculine or feminine according to your gender.