medical terminology gastrointestinal system

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medical terminology gastrointestinal system
2011-10-27 23:59:15
medical terminology gastrointestinal system

medical terminology-gastric system
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  1. the breaking down of fluid and foods into simple chemicals that can be absorbed into the blood stream and carried throughout the body
  2. the expulsion of waste products from the body through excretion of feces
  3. the mouth or oral cavity
    buccal cavity
  4. ____ connect the mouth with three major pairs of salivary glands
  5. glands that secrete saliva to moisten the food during chewing
    salivary glands
  6. glands located at the side of the face, in front and below the external ear
  7. glands located, as the name implies, beneath the mandible or lower jaw
  8. glands located, as the name indicates, under the tongue
  9. a cavity that extends from the base of the skull to the esophagus and assists in swallowing by taking food and pushing it toward the esophagus
    pharynx (throat)
  10. the muscular tube that extends from the pharynx through the mediastinum and then on to the stomach
  11. sphincter in the upper border of the esophagus
    esophageal sphincter
  12. rhythmic contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle
  13. structure located in the upper left part of the abdominal cavity just below the diaphragm. Its upper border attaches to the lower end of the esophagus. It is able to collapse and expand, depending on the amount of food and liquid taken in at any given occassion
  14. guards the opening of the stomach and opens as food approaches
    cardiac sphincter
  15. the lateral portion of the stomach
    greater curvature
  16. the medial surface of the stomach
    lesser curvature
  17. part of the stomach lying near the junction of the stomach and esophagus
  18. enlarged portion of the stomach lying above and to the left of the esophageal opening into the stomach
  19. lower portion of the stomach, lying near the junction of the stomach and the duodenum
  20. structure whose purpose is to serve as a temporary storage for food and a place where digestion begins
  21. once the stomach has completed mixing food with gastric secretions, it moves the gastric contents into the ______
  22. the first part of the chyme's journey
    small intestine
  23. semi-fluid substance created when the stomach mixes the food with gastric secretions
  24. the valve between the ileum of the small intestine and the first segment of the large intestine
    ileocecal valve
  25. structure extending from the ileocal valve to the anus. It absorbs water, secretes mucus, and eliminates digestive wastes
    large intestine
  26. structure resembling a sac that comprises the first few inches of the large intestines (begins just below the ileocecal valve)
  27. rises on the right posterior abdominal wall, then turns sharply under the liver at the hepatic flexure
    ascending colon
  28. situated above the small intestine, passes horizontally across the abdomen and below the liver, stomach, and spleen (at the left splenic flexure it turns downward)
    transverse colon
  29. strucure starts near the spleen and extends down the left side of the abdomen into the pelvic cavity
    descending colon
  30. descends through the pelvic cavity, where it becomes the rectum
    sigimoid colon
  31. last few inches of the large intestine; terminates in teh anus
  32. innermost lining of the GI tract; composed of epithelial and surface cells and loose connective tissue
    mucosa (tunica mucosa)
  33. the layer of lining that surrounds the mucosa. It is made up of loose connective tissue, blood and lymphatic vessels, and nerve network.
    submucosa (tunica submucosa)
  34. around the submucosa, lies the ________, which is composed of skeletal muscle in the mouth, pharynx, and upper esophagus and longitudinal and circular, smooth muscle fiber elsewhere in the tract.
    tunica muscularis
  35. GI's tract outer covering. It is called the tunica adventicia of the esophagus and rectum, and the tunica serosa elsewhere
    visceral peritoneum
  36. the visceral peritoneum on the esophagus and rectum
    tunica adventitia
  37. outer covering of the abdominal organs
    visceral peritoneum
  38. outer covering that lines the abdominal cavity
    parietal peritoneum
  39. the muscular valve that controls the entry of bile and pancreatic juice
    hepatopancreatic sphincter or Oddi's sphincter
  40. this organs digestive function is to produce bile for export to the duodenum
  41. the liver's functional unit, made up of a plate of hepatic cells that encircle a central vein and spread outward
  42. hepatic cells
  43. structures that seperate the hepacyte plates (of the liver's lobule) from each other and are the liver's capillary system
  44. cells that line the sinusoids and remove bacteria and toxins that have entered the blood through the intestinal capillaries
    Kuppfer's cells
  45. ducts merge into the right and left hepatic ducts to form the _________
    common hepatic duct
  46. the hepatic duct joins the cystic duct from the gallbladder to form the _______, which leads to the duodenum
    common bile ductq
  47. structure that looks like a pear that is hidden under the liver and joined to the larger organ by the systic duct; its function is to store and concentrate bile produced by the liver
  48. hormone that stimulates the gallbladder which makes it contract, the hepatopancreatic ampulla relaxes, and bile is released into the common bile duct for delivery to the duodenum
    cholecystokinin hormone
  49. organ that lies behind the stomach with its head and neck extending into the curve of the duodenum and its tail lying against the spleen. It contains two cell types
  50. cells from which hormones are secreted into the blood
    endocrine cells
  51. cells from which enzymes are secreted through ducts to the digestive system
    exocrine system
  52. named for Paul Langerhans, the German physician who discovered them. These microscopic structures are scattered through out the pancreas and contain alpha and beta cells
    islets of Langerhans
  53. cells which are secrete glucagon
    alpha cells
  54. a hormone that stimulates the breakdown of glycogen to glucose in the liver (glycogenolysis)
    cells that secrete insulin to promote carbohydrate metabolism
  55. term that refers to increased abdominal girth-resulting from increased intr-abdominal pressure forcing the abdominal wall outward
    abdominal distention
  56. loss of appetite
  57. refers to the abdominal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity
  58. a profound state of overall ill health and malnutrition characterized by weakness and emaciation
  59. acute abdominal pain
  60. refers to decreased passage of stools. Stools are charcteristically hard and dry
  61. rapid movement of fecal material through the intestine that causes poor absorption of water and nutrients. Stools are watery and frequent
  62. gastric disturbance, such as fullness, heartburn, bloating, and nausea that occurs after eating
  63. difficult or painful swallowing
  64. an expulsion of the stomach contents by vomiting
  65. refers to the upper and middle regions of the abdomen
  66. an accumulation of hardened feces in the rectum or sigimoid colon that cannot be evacuated
    fecal impaction
  67. refers to the inability to prevent the discharge of feces
    fecal incontinence
  68. refers to a sensation of gaseous abdominal fullness
  69. a burning sensation in the esophagus or below the sternum in the region of the heart
    heartburn (pyrosis)
  70. vomiting blood
  71. enlarged liver
  72. mechanical intestinal obstruction
  73. yellow appearance of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclerae of the eyes, resulting from elevated serum bilirubin levels
  74. unpleasant feeling that typically precedes vomiting
  75. amout of blood so small that it can be seen or detected only by a chemical test or microscopic examination
    occult blood
  76. craving and ingestion of normally inedible substances, such as plaster, charcoal, clay, wool, ashes, paint, and dirt
  77. consuming abnormally amounts of food
  78. chronic, excessive thirst
  79. spasmodic cotraction of the anal sphincter (the person has a persistant urge to defecate and an uncontrollable, ineffective straining at stool. This occurs in inflammatory bowel disorders such as ulcerative colitis, rectal tumors, and Crohn's disease
    rectal tenesmus
  80. forcible expulsion of stomach contents through the mouth
  81. test that checks for the presence of H. pylori, which is associated with chronic gastritis and idiopathic chronic duodenal ulceration
    helicobater pylori antibodies test
  82. test that measures the level of the pancreatic enzyme alpha-amylase, which is active in the digestion of starch and glycogen
    serum amylase test
  83. test that measures serum levels of bilirubin, the main pigment in bile and the major product of hemoglobin breakdown
    serum bilirubin test
  84. test that measures the circulating levels of free cholesterol and cholester esters
    total cholesterol test
  85. test that measures the amount of lipase in the blood; large amounts indicate damage to the pancreas
    serum lipase test
  86. test that helps detect and evaluate tumors and other abdominal disorders
    flat plate of the abdomen or abdominal x-ray
  87. radiographic examination of the large intestine after rectal installation of barium, a radiopaque contrast medium
    barium enema
  88. radiographic examination of the throat and esophagus after rectal installation of barium, a radiopaque contrast medium
    barium swallow
  89. involves the fluoroscopic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine after the patient ingests a contrast medium
    upper GI and small bowel series
  90. a visual inspection of a body cavity using an optical instrument called an endoscope
  91. an endoscopic examination of the interior of the peritoneal cavity
  92. an endoscopic examination of the sigmoid colon
  93. a bacteriologic examination of the feces
    stool culture
  94. a closed esophagus
    esophogeal atresia
  95. hollowed outpouchings in the esophageal wall
    esophageal diverticula
  96. narrowing of the esophagus
    esophageal stricture
  97. enlarged, torturous veins in the lower esophagus that are caused by portal hypertension
    esophageal varices
  98. inflammation of the mucous membrane that lines the esophagus
  99. backflow of gastric or duodenal contents into the esophagus
    gastroesophageal reflux
  100. inflammation of the gums
  101. inflammation of the tongue
  102. protrusion of the stomach through structural defect in the diaphragm at the esophageal opening
    hiatal hernia
  103. progression of gingivitis involving an inflammation of the oral mucosa
  104. inflammation of the mouth
  105. abnormal connection or opening between the trachea and the esophagus
    tracheoesophageal fistula
  106. chronic disease that prevents an individual from tolerating foods containing gluten or wheat protein
    celiac disease
  107. a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that usually involves the proximal portion of the colon and, less commonly, the terminal ileum
    celiac disease
  108. bulging pouches (diverticula) in the GI wall. It is most often in the sigmoid colon , that pushes the mucosal lining through the surrounding muscle
    diverticular disease
  109. inflammation of one or more of the diverticuli
  110. presence of diverticuli without accompanying inflammation
  111. inflammation of the stomach and stomach lining