CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM (HEART & BLOOD VESSELS)
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Layers of the heart wall in order
- (outer to inner)
The tissue that composes the middle layer of heart?
What contributes to inner layer of the heart?
epithelial lining and valves
Chambers, valves, and major vessels associated with the heart in order of flow are:
- 1.superior + inferior vena cavae-> Right atrium-> tricuspid valve
- 2.right ventricle->pulmonary valve->pulmonary trunk->pulmonary arteries->pulmonary circulation
- 3.pulmonary veins->left artium->bicuspid(mitral)valve
- 4.left ventricle->aortic valve->aorta > systemic circulation
What are the vessels that deliver oxygen to the myocardium?
What is myocardial infarction?
tissue death in myocardium due to decreased flow of oxygen in coronary artery
Name the pacemaker
Where is the pacemaker located?
1.The length of the refractory period of the conduction system?
2.What does it prevent?
- 2.prevents the heart from beating too fast
recording of electrical activity during cardiac cycle
1.What are the 3 types of waves?
2.What does each represent?
- P wave--> atrial depolarization
- QRS complex--> ventricle depolarization
- T wave--> ventricle repolarization
1.Which chamber is the cardiac cycle often described in terms of systole and diastole?
- 1. left ventricle
- 2. it works the hardest (pumping blood to whole body)
Functions of artieries?
carries blood away from heart to capillary
Wall characteristics of artieries?
middle layer contains elastic fibers & smooth muscle
Functions of cappillaries?
Wall characteristics of cappillaries?
endothelium (simple squamous epi)
Functions of veins?
carries blood back to the heart ( cap-->heart)
Wall characteristics of veins?
same as arteries(elastic fibers & smooth muscle) & valves
Define hydrostatic pressure
fluid pressure that allows fluid from blood to interstitial space (proximal)
Define osmotic pressure of blood
the movement of fluid from interstitial space to blood due to albumin (distal)
What is the reference value for the systemic pressure?
Normal BP (120/80)
Define systolic pressure
highest aortic pressure during systole
Define diastolic pressure
lowest aortic pressure during diastole
2 basic factors that influence arterial pressure
- cardiac output
- peripheral resistance
What is cardiac output?
it's the blood pumped by either ventricle per minute
What is stroke volume?
blood pumped by either ventricle per beat
What is heart rate?
beats per minute
What is peripheral resistance?
opposition to blood flow determined by vessel diameter
Average Adult cardiac output?
4-6 per minute
Nervous system regulation of BP by modification of cardiac output
- input---baroreceptors (monitor BP)
- control center--cardiac regulatory center
- output--Autonomic Nervous System --heart rate altered and cardiac output altered
Nervous system regulation of BP by modification of peripheral rseistance
- input--baroreceptors(BP) chemoreceptors (O2 & Co2)
- control center--vasomotor center
- output--Autonomic Nervous System--vessel diameter change---peripheral resistance altered
Major arteries in order of flow for upper body
- 1. subclavin
- 2. axillary
- 3. brachial
- 4. radial and ulnar
- 5. hand
Major arteries in order of flow for lower body
- 1.common iliac
- 2. ext.iliac
- 3. femoral
- 4. popliteal
- 5. antieror and postieror tibial
- 6. food
Major veins in order of flow for upper body
- 1. radial & ulnar
- 2. brachial
- 3. axillary
- 4. subclavian
- 5. SVC
- 1. basilic & cephalic
- 2. axillary
Major veins in order of flow for lower body
- 1.antieror and postieror tibial
- 2. popliteal
- 3. femoral
- 4. ext. iliac
- 5. common iliac
- 6. inferior vena cava
- great saphenous v-----> femoral v
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