"Blemishes" that discredit a persons claim to a "normal" identity
A group's usual and customary social arrangements, on which its members depend on which they base their lives.
A group's formal and informal means of enforcing its norms
An expression of disapproval for breaking a norm, ranging from a mild, informal reaction such as a frown to a formal reaction such as a prison sentence or execution.
A reward or positive reaction for following norms, ranging from a smile to a material reward.
Inborn tendencies (for examples, a tendency to commit deviant acts)
Crimes such as mugging, rape, and burglary
The view that a personality disturbance of some sort of causes an individual to violate social norms.
Edwin Sutherland's term to indicate that people who associate with some groups learn an "excess of definitions" of deviance, increasing the likelihood that they will become deviant
the idea that two control systems--inner controls and outer controls--work against our tendencies to deviate
A term coined by Harold Garfinkle to refer to a ritual whose goal is to reshape someone's self by stripping away that individuals self-identity and stamping a new identity in its place
The view that the labels people are given affect their own and others' perceptions of them, thus channeling their behavior into either deviance or conformity
Techniques of Neutralization
Ways of thinking or rationalizing that help people deflect (or neutralize) society's norms
The objectives held out as legitimate or desirable for the members of a society to achieve
Approved ways of reaching cultural goals
Robert Merton's term for the strain engendered when a society socializes large number of people to desire a cultural goal (such as success), but withholds from some the approved means of reaching that goal; one adaptation to the strain is crime, the choice of innovative means (one outside the approved systems) to attain the cultural goal.
Illegitimate Opportunity Structure
Opportunities for crimes that are woven into the texture of life
Edwin Sutherland's term for crimes committed by people of respectable and high social status in the course of their occupations; for example bribery of public officials, security violations, embezzlement, false advertising, and price fixing.
Crimes committed by executives in order to benefit their corporation
Criminal Justice System
The system of police, courts, and prisons, set up to deal with, people who are accused of having committed a crime
The proportion of released convicts who are rearrested
The death penalty
The killing of several victims in three or more separate event
A crime that is punished more severely because it is motivated by hatred (dislike, Hostility, Animosity) of someone's race - ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, disability, or national origin
The practice of the police , in normal course of their duties, to either arrest or ticket someone for an offense or to overlook the matter
Medicalization of Deviance
To make deviance a medical matter, a symptom of some underlying illness that need to be treated by physicians