PSY 254-03

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  1. Attitude
    A favorable or unfavorable evaluative reaction toward something or someone. Often rooted in one’s beliefs, and exhibited in one’s feelings and intended behavior. A positive or negative evaluation of an object.
  2. Attitude (2)
    Objects include: people, things, events, issues. Descriptors include words like: like, dislike, good, bad. Attitude toward the self = self-esteem. Attitude toward others = “Friendship” or love….
  3. Attitude (3)
    Behavior and attitudes differ because both are subject to other influences. When these influences are minimal our attitudes do predict behavior.
  4. Implicit Attitudes May Underlie Explicit Attitudes
  5. Implicit Attitudes
    A gut level evaluation. Automatic, often differs from our consciously controlled, explicit attitudes. Activated automatically from memory, often without the person’s awareness that he or she possesses it. Feeling uneasy around a new acquaintance because you unconsciously associate him with a disagreeable person from your past.
  6. Explicit Attitude
    Consciously held, more thoughtful and deliberate evaluation. Joint product of affective, cognitive, and behavioral components.
  7. Implicit and Explicit Attitude
    For attitudes formed early in life, such as racial and gender attitudes, implicit and explicit attitudes frequently diverge. Implicit attitudes often being the better predictor of behavior.
  8. Dual Attitudes
    Differing implicit (automatic) and explicit (consciously controlled) attitudes toward the same object. Verbalized explicit attitudes may change with education and persuasion. Implicit attitudes change slowly, with practice that forms new habits.
  9. Dual Attitudes (2)
    The simultaneous possession of contradictory implicit and explicit attitudes toward the same object. It’s not only our inner attitudes that guide us but also the situation we face.
  10. Dual Attitudes (3)
    Social influences can be enormous – enormous enough to induce people to violate their deepest convictions. The effects of an attitude become more apparent when we look at a person’s average behavior than when we consider isolated acts. People’s general attitude toward religion poorly predicts whether they will go to worship services during the coming week. Because attendance is also influenced by the weather, the worship leader, how one is feeling, and so on. But religious attitudes predict quite well the total quantity of religious behaviors over time.
  11. Dual Attitudes (4)
    It wasn’t until Blake said it (that he hated the pony) that Kate realized that she, too, had always hated Topper. For years they had been conned into loving him, because children love their pony, and their dog, and their parents, picnics, the ocean, and chocolate cake. Contradictory implicit and explicit attitudes can develop simultaneously, due to different situational factors. Positive explicit attitude shaped by expectations of others that kids love their pets. Negative implicit attitude shaped by Topper’ unpleasant behavior. In this case, the explicit attitude overrode the implicit negative attitude.
  12. Reference Group
    Group to which people orient themselves. The individual uses groups standards to judge themselves and the world. Has an emotional attachment to the group. Refers to the group for guidance. Can be large and inclusive (nation or religion) or smaller (family, friends).
  13. Reference Group (2)
    Bennington College Study. Conservative family values……liberal views of professors. Change in political and social views. Change in 1st year to fourth year (enduring shift of values).
  14. Functional Approach to Attitudes (why the attitude change?)
    Like a product because your friends like it, or like it because it is environmentally friendly. If product is sold to another company that is not environmentally friendly, you may not like it anymore….
  15. Functional Approach to Attitudes (why the attitude change?) (2)
    Individual is an active participant in attitude development and change. People hold attitudes to fit their current needs. When needs change so will their attitudes. People could have similar attitudes toward an object for different reasons.
  16. Mere Exposure Effect
    The tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more or rated more positively after the rater has been repeatedly exposed to them. Simply exposing a person repeatedly to a particular object causes them to develop a more positive attitude toward the object. Does not require action toward the object. Does not require development of any beliefs about the object. Illustrates how affect can become associated with an object without any knowledge of it.
  17. Mere Exposure Effect (2)
    Chinese characters. Food, music. Nonsense syllables (fdr, spk…). Facial photographs. Develop feeling based attitudes due to repeated exposure of items…..
  18. Attitude Formation Through Classical Conditioning
    A previously neutral attitude object can come to evoke an attitude response by being paired with some other object that naturally evokes the attitude response. UCS - UCR. Neutral stimulus + UCS - UCR. Neutral stimulus (now a CS) - CR.
  19. Attitude Formation Through Classical Conditioning (2)
    Pavlov’s experiment. Food - UCR (salivating). Bell + food - UCR (salivating). Bell (now a CS) - CR (salivating). Could play a role in establishing emotional components of attitudes and prejudice. More powerful when people have limited knowledge about attitude object. Can occur below level of conscious awareness.
  20. Operant Conditioning and Attitude Formation
    If behavior is not rewarded or is punished, similar future actions are less likely. Accompanying this increase or decrease in behavior will be an attitude consistent with the behavior. A child’s parents and teachers praise her for doing well in math. She then redoubles her efforts and develops a positive attitude toward mathematics in general.
  21. Cognitive Dissonance
    Cognitive dissonance theory assumes that to reduce discomfort, we justify our actions to ourselves. (Dissonance: a tension or clash resulting from the combination of two disharmonious or unsuitable elements.). Tension that arises when one is simultaneously aware of two inconsistent cognitions.
  22. Cognotave Dissonance (2)
    Dissonance may occur when we realize, that we have, with little justification, acted contrary to our attitudes or made a decision favoring one alternative despite reasons for another.
  23. Cognotave Dissonance (3)
    If you simultaneously hold two cognitions that are inconsistent (I enjoy smoking; smoking leads to lung cancer), you will experience a feeling of discomfort, or dissonance. We rationalize our behavior instead of engaging in rational behavior. Analogous to hunger. We are naturally motivated to eliminate it.
  24. Ways to Reduce Cognitive Dissonance
    Changing attitudes - “I don’t need to quit drinking, I like getting drunk”. Adding cognitions - “Getting drunk relaxes me, which is good for me”. Altering the importance of the discrepancy - “It’s more import to fit in than worry about the effects of alcohol”.
  25. Ways to Reduce Cognitive Dissonance (2)
    Reducing perceived choice - “I have no choice; I am so stressed drinking is my only outlet”. Making self affirmations - “I am such a good student, getting drunk is not big deal”. Changing behaviors - “I am going to stop drinking”.
  26. Justification of Effort
    When people have a bad experience with a group they have freely chosen to join. There is a natural tendency for them to try to transform the bad experience into a good one.
  27. Justification of Effort (2)
    This is done to reduce cognitive dissonance. The more you pay for something, the more you like it. Reduction of dissonance by internally justifying one’s behavior when external justification is “insufficient”.
  28. Post-Decision Dissonance
    As soon as we commit ourselves to a particular course of action. The attractive aspects of the un-chosen alternatives and the unattractive aspects of our choice are inconsistent with our decision.
  29. Post-Decision Dissonance (2)
    Dissonance increases with importance. We alter our perceptions to reduce dissonance. We improve our evaluation of chosen alternative. We lower evaluation of un-chosen alternative. Big decisions can produce big dissonance when one later ponders the negative aspects of what is chosen and the positive aspects of what was not chosen.
  30. Self-Perception Theory
    When we are unsure of our attitudes, we infer them much as would someone observing us, by looking at our behavior and the circumstances under which it occurs. Self-perception theory assumes that our actions are self-revealing. When uncertain about our feelings or beliefs, we look to our behavior, much as anyone else would.
  31. Self-Perception Theory (2)
    We infer our attitudes from our behavior and the situation in which the behavior occurs. Contends behavior causes attitudes. When we form attitudes, we function like an observer. Closely observing past actions and attributing them to internal or external sources. Operates when we have little prior experience with the attitude object or attitudes are vaguely defined.
  32. Theory of Planned Behavior
    Our behavioral intentions are influenced less by general attitudes than by attitudes toward performing the specific behavior in question. People contemplate more than attitudes prior to deciding on a behavior.
  33. Theory of Planned Behavior (2)
    Behavior is guided by three kinds of considerations: attitudes toward performing the behavior, perceptions of whether others will approve of behavior, beliefs of how easy it will be to perform the behavior.
  34. Theory of Planned Behavior (3)
    Better yet for predicting behavior, is knowing people’s intended behaviors, and their perceived self-efficacy and control. Even simply asking people about their intentions to engage in a behavior increases its likelihood. (Self-efficacy: our belief in our ability to succeed in certain situations.) Ask people if the intend to floss their teeth in the next two weeks, they will become more likely to do so.
  35. Elaboration Likelihood
    The probability that the target of a persuasive message will elaborate the information contained in the message. Central route to persuasion: individual is influenced by the strength and quality of the argument (facts of the communication). Peripheral route to persuasion: individual is influenced by irrelevant cues to content or quality of the communication (attractiveness of the communicator).
  36. Sleeper Effect
    A delayed impact of message that occurs when an initially discounted message becomes effective, as we remember the message but forget the reason for discounting. Highly credible sources are more persuasive immediately after the message presentation than less credible sources.
  37. Sleeper Effect (2)
    Over time the credibility gap weakens, low credibility sources are forgotten and individual is influenced by content alone, magnitude of the effect depends on strength of discounting cue.
  38. Sleeper Effect (3)
    Any of us would find a statement about the benefits of exercise more believable if I came for he National Academy of Sciences rather than from a tabloid newspaper. But the effects of source credibility (perceived trustworthiness) diminish after a month or so. If a credible person’s message its impact may fade as its source is forgotten or disassociated from the message. The impact of a non-credible person may correspondingly increase over time if people remember the message better than the reason for discounting it. This delayed persuasion, after people forget the source or its connection with the message, is called the sleeper effect.
  39. Conditions Required for Sleeper Effect to Occur
    Message must be convincing and lead to persuasion. People able and motivated to elaborate on message prior to discounting cue. People given information discounting credibility following persuasive message, not before. Impact of discounting cue decays in memory faster than persuasive message.
  40. Persuader Attractiveness
    Persuasion is the process by which a message induces change in beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors. We are attracted to those who are similar to us. This attraction leads to us being influenced by similar others. Communicators can be similar in many ways. Attitudes, values, backgrounds, appearance.
  41. Emotions and Persuasion
    People in a positive mood are more susceptible to persuasion. Similar effects found in those listening to pleasant music. Emotions have indirect influence on persuasion. Feelings-as-information explanation: positive moods signal to people that everything is fine in their environment and effortful thought is necessary. As a result, happy people are like to be influenced by poor arguments because they are less likely to engage in extensive processing.
  42. Fear and Persuasion
    When feeling highly vulnerable to a threat. We do not critically analyze the recommended actions others offer us to avoid danger. Strong desire to believe that a highly threatening situation can be avoided places great power in hands of those offering solutions.
  43. Humor and Persuasion
    Humor increases attention to the message. People are more likely to listen to someone trying to make them laugh. May interfere with the comprehension of the listener. May direct attention away from persuasive content. Helps people manage fear-inducing messages. Allows them to more effectively process the message.
  44. Two-Sided Messages
    Two-sided messages involve acknowledging the opposing arguments and then refuting them. Mentioning opposing message suggests you are fair-minded, increasing your trustworthiness. This in turn increases your effectiveness at persuasion. “Inoculates” people against opposing views. (Inoculate: treat (a person or animal) with a vaccine to produce immunity against a disease.)
Card Set:
PSY 254-03
2011-10-28 06:34:26
Social Psychology 254 03 Chapter Test

Chapter 5, Test 2
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