1301 exam 2

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1301 exam 2
2011-10-28 11:24:46
american history

American History
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  1. Causes of the Great War
  2. a. International competition for colonial lands
    • i. Germany is behind everyone else in this imperial competition
    • b. Nationalism – extreme patriotism
    • i. Fuels the imperialistic competition
    • c. Arms race – naval rivalry begins between Britain and Germany
  3. Central Powers were
    Germany, Austria, Hungary, Italy
  4. Triple Entente
    Great Britain, France, & Russia
  5. What starts WW1
    assassination of Arch Duke Frans Ferdenand
  6. What challenges US neutrality in WWI
    • Sinking of the Lusitania
    • Interception of the Zimmerman Telegram
    • Anti-german propoganda - german spies
    • Historic/ economic ties to the allies
    • US supplying 40% of war materials to the allies
  7. an offer for an alliance between Germany and Mexico - Germans promise to return all land lost to US
    Zimmerman Telegram
  8. April 6, 1917
    US declares war on Germany
  9. March 1917 - Russia
    withdrew from the war
  10. Selected Service Act 1917
  11. New technology used in WWI fighting included
    barbed wire, poison gas, machine guns
  12. What did the Armistice signing do
    ended WWI
  13. In WWI __________ US troops were killed, ______ suffered casualties but survived
    • 100,000
    • 200,000
  14. The least popular war in US history before Vietnam
  15. regulate what can and cannot be sent through the US postal system and prohibit disloyal speech or writings
    Espionage and Sedition Acts
  16. patriotic groups that would perform slacker raids – pick on able bodied men not serving in military
    American Protective League
  17. Major change due to WWI
    expansion of governments power (esp. and sed. act)
  18. Wilson's _____ plan for world wide democracy
    14 points
  19. 7 of the 14 points included
    • End to secret treaties
    • Freedom of the seas
    • removal of economic barriers to free trade
    • reduction of weapons of war
    • recognize rights of colonized people
    • creation of League of Nations
  20. Outcomes of Treaty of Versailles
    • Iraq and Palistine became British mandates
    • Balfour declaration - national home for Jews
    • Hochee Men asks Wilson for Vietnamese independence but he is rejected
    • Germany is punished
  21. How is Germany punished for WWI
    • forced to pay for entire cost of war
    • forced to disarm and scale back military production
  22. Examples of post war progress in industry
    • Greater technology
    • People relied on credit to purchase large items (cars, homes)
    • Boom in housing construction market
  23. Henry Ford's factory was located in
  24. pioneered assembly line and mass production
    Henry Ford
  25. US produced __% of world's automobiles
  26. The _____ industry is responsible for creation of hundreds of thousands of jobs
  27. Greatest example of mass culture
  28. Examples of mass culture in 1920's
    Movies, radio, advertising, journalism, sports, celebrities
  29. Examples of "new" women in 1920s
    • college education
    • lived in cities - urban life
    • flappers
    • participation in politics
  30. Womens party started this ammendment, but it failed in congress
    equal rights ammendment
  31. Marcus Garvey
    argued blacks should creat their own society separate from white society and embrace african american heritage and keep the race pure
  32. black community that experiences a cultural renaissance - lots of jazz music
  33. KKK reemerges 1915 – in response to
  34. After KKK fizzled out -
    o New clan has women called _____ that used gossip to undermine legitimacy of neighbors
  35. Rise of fundamentalism was in response to
  36. represents ultimate confict between science and religion – biology teacher teaches evolution to students which is illegal at the time
    Scopes Trial
  37. prosecutor and defender for Scopes Trial
    • Def: Clarence Daro
    • Pros: William Jennings Bryant
  38. Became president in 1929
    Herbert Hoover
  39. believed in small government, individual self reliance and limited business regulation
  40. Reasons for weakness in world economy in 1929
    • Rather than helping rebuild Europe, we demand payment of debts
    • Harsh tariffs prevent importation of goods
  41. Causes of Great Depression
    • Fragile economy
    • Uneven distribution of wealth
    • Stock market crash
  42. Reasons for decrease in economy 1929
    • Farmers suffered from low prices
    • Industrial workers - low wages
    • majority of americans could not afford multiple home/cars - saturation in market
    • gradual decrease in production - employees laid off
  43. Margin buying
    buying stock on credit
  44. government raised interest rate to discourage
    credit buying of stocks
  45. reasons for stock market crash
    • government raises interest rate on margin buying
    • people stop buying stock, prices fall, people get scared and sell
  46. value of stock market 87 billion to 55 billion
    Black Thursday - Oct. 24th 1929
  47. Most americans could not afford stock, but were indirectly effected by stock market crash because
    Banks invested in stock market and went out of business
  48. raises import taxes to US 1930
    Hawley Smoot Tariff
  49. tent cities in vacant lots
  50. Dust bowl lasted from ____ to _____
    1930 - 1941
  51. Reasons for dust bowl
    • land stressed from overproduction during WWI
    • Worst drought in US history
  52. ____% unemployment rate in Harlem
  53. Lifelong effects of depression
    Canning, hiding money, hoarding
  54. Hoover's response to depression
    • encouraged to rely on charities - limited gov. intervention
    • Hoover dam - public work project
    • Reconstruction Finance Corporation
  55. provided government loans to private businesses or banks
    Reconstruction Finance Corporation
  56. What ultimately seals Hoover's fate?
    sending in military response to veterans march on Washington
  57. Hoover loses to FDR in
  58. mandatory bank holiday to analyze and determine capability of survival
    Emergency Banking Act
  59. 6 aspects of FDR's New Deal
    • Emergency Banking Act
    • Federal Emergency Relief Administration
    • Repeals prohibition
    • National Industrial Recovery Act
    • Agricultural Adjustment Act
    • FDIC
  60. paid by government to plant trees, build bridges, build hiking trails
    Civilian Conservation Core (CCC)
  61. Public works projects are created by
    Federal Emergency Relief Administration
  62. created to regulate industry and establish labor rights, improve working conditions
    National Industrial Recovery Act
  63. very controversial, focuses on competition in business – fair trade rules, set prices, regulated competition and production
    National Recovery Administration (NRA)
  64. pays farmers to farm less of land – way of regulating supply and increase prices
    Agricultural Adjustment Act
  65. pays workers to electrify places that don’t have electricity yet
    Tennessee Valley Authority
  66. one of the most important parts of the new deal
  67. FDIC originally insured up to ____ then increased to _____ after 6 months
    • $2,500
    • $5,000
  68. developed his own share the wealth plan – guaranteed every American family a yearly payment of $5,000 from federal government and tax the wealthy harshly to pay for this program
    Hewey Long
  69. very old medical doctor – said elderly are suffering and there should be an old age pension plan
    Francis Townshend
  70. Supreme court finds these parts of the New Deal unconstitutional
    NIRA and Ag. Adj. Act
  71. Second New Deal formed in
    1935 - 1936
  72. FDR really tried to gain support from working class with the
    Second New Deal
  73. Parts of the Second New Deal
    • Social Security Act
    • Wagner Act - National Labor relations Act
    • Fair Labor Standards Act
    • SEC - securities exchange commission
    • FHA - federal housing administration
  74. social insurance provided by government meant to help elderly, disabled, and survivors of accidental death
    Social Security Act
  75. gives workers right to select own union, strike, boycott, picket
    Wagner Act
  76. regulates stock exchange
  77. improve housing standards and conditions, provides financing
  78. FDR supported by
    New Deal Coalition
  79. New Deal Coalition included
    south, catholics & jews, labor unions - working class, northern african americans, and women/progressives
  80. defines democratic party
    FDR - New Deal Coalition
  81. FDR accepts third term because
    WWII breaks out in Europe
  82. FDR begins third term in
  83. The New Deals effects
    • greatly expanded power of fed. gov.
    • introduced deficit spending
    • created idea of welfare state
  84. WWII Allies
    US, UK, Soviet Union, France
  85. The Big Three
    Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill
  86. Axis powers
    Germany, Italy, France
  87. What starts WWII
    Germany invades Poland - Britain/France declare war on Germany
  88. pledges neutrality – lasts until operation Barbarossa
    Soviet Nazi Non-aggression pact
  89. lightning war – concentrate on taking one area at a time very quickly
  90. After taking Poland, Germany quickly takes
    Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg, and France
  91. Hitler's first major defeat
    Battle of Britain
  92. June 1941 – Hitler invades Soviet Union with 4.5 million troops
    Operation Barbarossa
  93. passed between 1935-37 – prevent the sale of weapons to belligerent nations, and allow for cash and carry trade – bring cash and carry home (weapons)
    Neutrality Acts
  94. became FDR's primary foreign policy objective
    aiding Great Britain
  95. ended cash and carry to assist Great Britain
    Lend Lease Act
  96. Official US entry into WWII
    Pearl Harbor 1941
  97. reasons for tense relations with Japan
    US places trade sanctions on Japan after they invade China in 1937
  98. Pearl Harbor:
    ______ americans killed _____ injured
    ____ ships sunk/disabled
    • 2400
    • 1000
    • 18
  99. Pearl Harbor was a major mistake because
    It pulled US into the war and enraged Americans
  100. establishes camps for Japanese Americans
    Executive order 9066
  101. one of the grossest violations of civil rights in US history
    Exec. order 9066
  102. organized march on Washington during the war to protest discrimination in the military
    CORE - congress on racial equality
  103. eliminates segregation in the armed forces – huge victory for civil rights activists
    Exec. Order 8802
  104. African American campaign for equality
    -victory abroad over fascism and victory at home over discrimination
    Double V Campaign
  105. war is paid for by
    war bonds to citizens, taxes
  106. o First US offensive in European
    o Eisenhower is in charge of this
    o Germans are pushed out of Africa
    o Mediterranean is made safe for shipping
    o 1943 allies invade Italy and they surrender
    Operation Torch - 1942
  107. The Big Three meet in Iran - stalin wants to open western front
    Teron Conference
  108. - D Day. Massive allied operation
    o 3 million troops are used
    o 4600 casualties on Omaha Beach alone (northern coast of France)
    o Gets us into France
    Operation Overlord
  109. Dec 1944 – Germans put everything they have into one last big effort to reclaim territory
    Battle of the Bulge
  110. WWII ends in
  111. institutes and island hopping campaign – gradually take one island after another on the way to Japan – Very successful
    Gen. Douglas McArthur
  112. reverses balance of power – first real decisive victory against Japan – puts Japan at disadvantage
    Battle of Midway Island
  113. US successes in Pacific
    • Battle of Midway Island
    • reclaiming Philippines
    • conquering Iwo Jima
  114. US failures in Pacific
    forced to surrender Philipines to Japanese
  115. Atomic bomb dropped on
    Hiroshima and Nagasaki
  116. Aug 14, 1945
    japanese finally surrender
  117. Sept. 2, 1945
    Official VJ day
  118. Two remaining super powers after WWII
    US and Soviet Union
  119. o provides 13.5 billion dollars to help rebuild Europe
    § Creates a new market to sell goods
    § And promotes good feelings towards the USKeeps communism from spreading to western Europe
    Marshall Plan
  120. · Can be no permanent peaceful co-existance between US and Soviet Union
    · Stalin says war with US is inevitable – Soviet is committed to military power
    · Soviet Union is committed to expansion
    · War with the soviet Union will essentially be a disaster, so the only thing to do is to prevent it from expanding
    Doctrine of Containment
  121. became required reading for anyone working in federal gov
    Doctrine of Containment
  122. o US must support free people who are resisting outside pressure
    o Becomes US policy to support any anti-communist resistance movement anywhere in the world – primary foreign policy objective
    Truman Doctrine
  123. 6 part containment strategy
    • Continue to advance technology for atomic weapons
    • Create stronger military
    • Create alliances
    • Provide military and economic aid to friendly nations
    • creation of a spy network in Soviet Union
    • Use of propaganda to promote US
  124. First US peacetime military alliance
    US, Canada, and W. Europe
    North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  125. loyalty and security became a problem because atomic secrets were leaked to Soviet – Soviet defector acknowleged a significant spy ring in US
    Red Scare
  126. job is to test loyalty of federal employees and put suspected communists on trial, keep subversive influences out of media
    House Unamerican Activities Committee (HUAC)
  127. congressman – not very popular and up for re-election. Comes up with an idea called “The List.”
    Joseph McCarthy
  128. The US commits to police action and goes in to help South Korea and to form a containment due to the Truman Doctrine to prevent Communism
    Korean War
  129. North Korea controlled by
  130. South Korea controlled by
    United States
  131. First of many hot wars during the cold war
    Korean War
  132. Truman's career is ruined because
    the Korean war at a stalemate in 1951