Zoology Lecture Exam 4

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Zoology Lecture Exam 4
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2011-10-28 12:51:36
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Zoology Lecture Exam 4
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  1. Describe Annelida
    • Bilaterally Symetrical (cephalization)
    • Exhibit metamerism
    • Hydrostatic Skeleton
    • Complete Digestive Tract
    • Closed Circulatory System
    • Respiration by gills, skin, or parapodia
    • Well developed nervous system and sense organs
    • Excretion by paired metanephridia
    • Chitinous Setae in all but leeches
    • Sexual Reproduction, Monoecious & Dioecious
  2. Phylum Annelida Classes
    Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea
  3. Class Polychaeta Genuses
    Nereis, Aphrodita
  4. Class Oligochaeta Genuses
    Lumbricus
  5. Class Hirudinea Genuses
    Hirudo
  6. Metamere:
    a repeating body segment
  7. Metamerism:
    the division of the body into a series of similar segments, each containing repeating arrangements of organs and systems
  8. Discuss Annelid Anatomy - Clitellum:
    used for reproduction
  9. Discuss Annelid Anatomy - Closed Circulatory System:
    no heart, instead a series of aortic arches.enlarged blood vessels which carry out the function of a heart
  10. Discuss Annelid Anatomy - Complete Digestive Tract:
    • pumping pharynx → through esophages then through crop (storage unit
    • somewhat like our stomach) → into gizzard (used to grind the food) →
    • down a long intestine
  11. Discuss Annelid Anatomy - Metanephridia:
    excretion, each segment has a pair
  12. Discuss Annelid Anatomy - Nephridiopore:
    opening to nephridium
  13. Assess the distinguishing characteristics for the annelid class Polychaeta:
    parapodia
  14. parapodia:
    feet that stick out on the side. Keeps water moving across them for respiration
  15. Assess the distinguishing characteristics for the annelid class Oligochatea:
    • no parapodia
    • typhlosole
    • clitellum
    • gizzaard
  16. Assess the distinguishing characteristics for the annelid class Hirudinea
    • Anterior and Posterior suckers
    • no hydrostatic skeleton
    • most are free living scavengers
  17. typhlosole:
    increases surface area in the intestine, which improves the efficiency of digestion and absorption.
  18. Contrast the various strategies used by annelids to obtain food: Polychaetes
    • filter feeding with radioles
    • active predator
    • detritus feeding with tentacles
  19. Contrast the various strategies used by annelids to obtain food: Oligochaetes
    Detritus feeding with pumping pharynx
  20. Contrast the various strategies used by annelids to obtain food: Hirudineans
    predators, detritus & fluid feeding with proboscis or cutting plates
  21. Contrast reproduction among annelid classes: Polychaeta
    • Dioecious
    • no permanent sex organs
    • no clitellum
    • external fertilization
  22. Contrast reproduction among annelid classes: Oligochaeta
    • Monecious
    • permantant sex organs
    • permanant clitellum
    • internal ferlization
  23. Contrast reproduction among annelid classes: Hirudineans
    • monoecious
    • permanent sex organs
    • temporary clitellum
    • internal fertilization
  24. compare and contrast the nervous system of the three worm phyla: platyhelminthes, nematoda, annelida.
    • platyhelminthes: Nervous Ladder Type
    • nematoda: Ganglia and Nerve Cords
    • annelida: Well developed
  25. compare and contrast the digestive system of the three worm phyla: platyhelminthes, nematoda, annelida.
    • platyhelminthes: Incomplete Digestive Tract
    • nematoda: Complete Digestive Tract
    • annelida: Complete Digestive Tract
  26. compare and contrast the circulatory systems of the three worm phyla: platyhelminthes, nematoda, annelida.
    • platyhelminthes: None
    • nematoda: None
    • annelida: Closed
  27. compare and contrast the excretory systems of the three worm phyla: platyhelminthes, nematoda, annelida.
    • platyhelminthes: flame cells
    • nematoda:
    • annelida: Paired Metanephridia
  28. compare and contrast the reproductive systems of the three worm phyla: platyhelminthes, nematoda, annelida.
    • platyhelminthes: mainly sexual, most monecious
    • nematoda: Sexual Reproduction, most Monecious
    • annelida: Sexual Reproduction, Monecious & Dioecious
  29. Phylum Arthopoda
    • Advanced metamerism resulting in tagmata
    • Highly adaptable jointed appendages
    • Highly adaptable exoskeleton and complexmuscle system
    • Open circulatory system
    • Complete digestive tract
    • Respiration by gills, book gills, booklungs, body surface, and tracheae
    • Well developed nervous system with complexsense organs
    • Excretion through coxal, antennal andmaxillary glands, and Malpighian tubules
    • Sexual reproduction – dioecious, internalfertilizers, most exhibiting metamorphosis
  30. Discuss Arthopod ecological information:
    • over 1.2 million extant species
    • found from polar to tropical regions and in the bodies of other organisms
    • found on land, in the air and fresh and marine waters
  31. Phylum Arthopoda Subphylums
    Chelicerata, Crustacea, Myriapoda, Hexapoda
  32. Subphylum Chelicerata Classes
    Merostomata, Arachnida
  33. Subphylum Crustacea Classes
    Maxillopoda, Malacostraca
  34. Subphylum Myriapoda Classes
    Chilopoda, Diplopoda
  35. Subphylum Hexapoda Classes
    Insecta
  36. Class Merostomata
    Genus Limulus
  37. Class Arachnida
    Orders: Araneae (spiders), Scorpionida (scorpions), Opiliones (harvestmen), Acari (ticks)
  38. Class Maxillopoda
    Subclass Cirripedia
  39. Class Malacostraca
    Order Isopoda, Decapoda
  40. Order Araneae
    Latrodectus, Loxosceles
  41. Subclass Cirripedia
    Balanus
  42. Order Isopoda
    Armadillidium
  43. Order Decapoda
    Penaeus, Cancer
  44. Evaluate the six reasons for arthropod abundance and diversity
    • a versatile and adaptable exoskeleton. Chitin, Tergum, Sternum, Pleura. Held together by ligaments. Enables them to crawl up walls and to fly.
    • Advanced segmentation and paired appendages. Enables them to crawl, outrun, move quickly.
    • Oxygen pumped directly to the tissues. More oxygen = more atp. More ATP = more energy for life.
    • Highly developed sense organs
    • complex behavioral patterns
    • limited intraspecific competition through metamorphosis
  45. Chitin:
    carbohydrate that provides structure. Lighter than protein.
  46. Tergum:
    top plate
  47. Sternum:
    bottom plate
  48. Pleura:
    side plates
  49. Thermoregulation:
    The acquiring, regulating and maintaining of body temperature through physiological and behavioral means
  50. Physiological Thermoregulation:
    using body structures to generate, maintain, or release heat
  51. Behavioral Thermoregulation:
    using body actions an movements to obtain, maintain, or release heat.
  52. Chelicerata
    • Two body segments: cephalothorax (prosoma) and abdomen (opisthosoma)
    • Six pair of appendages: one pair of chelicerae, one pair of pedipalps and four pair of walking legs
    • no antennae or mandibles

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