Microbiology Chapter #14

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Microbiology Chapter #14
2011-10-28 13:44:44
itsaji PHCC

Principles of Disease & Epidemiology
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  1. Pathology
    The study of disease
  2. Etiology
    The study of the cause of a disease
  3. Pathogenesis
    The development of disease
  4. Infection
    Colonization of the body by pathogens
  5. Disease
    An abnormal state in which the body is not functioning normally
  6. ___ microbiota may be present for days, weeks, or months
  7. ___ microbiota permanently colonize the host
  8. ___ is the relationship between normal microbiota and the host
  9. In ___ one organism benefits, and the other is unaffected
  10. In ___ both organisms benefit
  11. In ___ one organism benefits at the expense of the other
  12. Some normal microbiotas are ___
    Opportunistic pathogens
  13. ___ are those that normally do not cause a disease, but can if conditions change or placed in a different environment.
    Opportunistic pathogens
  14. Some people are healthy ___ of normally pathogenic organisms but do not themselves get the disease.
  15. ___ is a competition between microbes.
    Microbial antagonism
  16. ___ protect the host by: Occupying niches that pathogens might occupy
    • Producing acids, producing bacteriocins
    • Normal microbiota
  17. Live microbes applied to or ingested into the body, intended to exert a beneficial effect
  18. Koch's postulates are used to prove the cause of an infectious disease however they cannot always be used because:
    • 1. Some pathogens can cause several disease conditions
    • 2. Some pathogens cause disease only in humans
    • 3. Some microorganisms cannot be artificially cultured in the laboratory.
  19. ___ a change in body function that is felt by a patient as a result of disease
  20. ___ a change in a body that can be measured or observed as a result of disease
  21. ___ a specific group of signs and symptoms that accompany a disease
  22. ___ a disease that is spread from one host to another
    Communicable disease
  23. ___ a disease that is easily spread from one host to another
    Contagious disease
  24. ___ a disease that is not transmitted from one host to another
    Non-communicable disease
  25. ___: Fraction of a population that contracts a disease during a specific time
  26. ___: Fraction of a population having a specific disease at a given time
  27. ___: Disease that occurs occasionally in a population
    Sporadic disease
  28. ___: Disease constantly present in a population
    Endemic disease
  29. ___: Disease acquired by many hosts in a given area in a short time
    Epidemic disease
  30. ___: Worldwide epidemic
    Pandemic disease
  31. ___: Immunity in most of a population
    Herd immunity
  32. ___: Symptoms develop rapidly
    Acute disease
  33. ___: Disease develops slowly
    Chronic disease
  34. ___: Symptoms between acute and chronic
    Subacute disease
  35. ___: Disease with a period of no symptoms when the causative agent is inactive
    Latent disease
  36. ___: Pathogens are limited to a small area of the body
    Local infection
  37. ___: An infection throughout the body
    Systemic infection
  38. ___: Systemic infection that began as a local infection
    Focal infection
  39. ___: Toxic inflammatory condition arising from the spread of microbes, especially bacteria or their toxins, from a focus of infection
  40. ___: Bacteria in the blood
  41. ___: Growth of bacteria in the blood
  42. ___: Toxins in the blood
  43. ___: Viruses in the blood
  44. ___: Acute infection that causes the initial illness
    Primary infection
  45. ___: Opportunistic infection after a primary (predisposing) infection
    Secondary infection
  46. ___: No noticeable signs or symptoms (inapparent infection)
    Subclinical disease
  47. Predisposing Factors which makes the body more susceptible to disease
    • 1. Short urethra in females
    • 2. Inherited traits, such as the sickle cell gene
    • 3. Climate and weather
    • 4. Fatigue
    • 5. Age
    • 6. Lifestyle
    • 7. Chemotherapy
  48. ___: Requires close association between infected and susceptible host
    Direct Contact
  49. ___: Spread by fomites
    Indirect Contact
  50. ___: Transmission via airborne droplets
  51. Arthropods, especially fleas, ticks, and mosquitoes transmit disease by 2 general methods:
    • 1. Mechanical transmission
    • 2. Biological transmission:
  52. ___: Arthropod carries pathogen on feet
    Mechanical transmission
  53. ___: Pathogen reproduces in vector
    Biological transmission
  54. ___: In order to spread a disease, an infected host must have an exit for the microorganism to leave the body called
    Portal of exit
  55. Portals of exit are :
    • Respiratory system
    • Urinary/reproductive systems
    • Skin
    • Digestive system
    • Drainage of a wound
    • Contaminated formite
    • Biting insect
  56. ___: are acquired as a result of a hospital stay
    Nosocomial Infections
  57. Control of Nosocomial Infections
    • 1. Septic techniques
    • 2. Washing hands
    • 3. Disinfection of hospital equipment
    • 4. Single use equipment
    • 5. Sterile packaging
  58. ___: Diseases those are new, increasing in incidence, or showing a potential to increase in the near future
    Emerging Infectious Diseases
  59. Contributing factors for emerging Infectious Diseases
    • 1. Genetic recombination - E. coli O157, avian influenza (H5N1)
    • 2. Evolution of new strains - V. cholerae O139
    • 3. Inappropriate use of antibiotics and pesticides - resistant strains
    • 4. Changes in weather patterns - Hantavirus
  60. Emerging Infectious Diseases by Modern transportation
    West Nile virus
  61. Emerging Infectious Diseases by Ecological disaster, war, and expanding human settlement
  62. Emerging Infectious Diseases by Animal control measures
    Lyme disease
  63. Emerging Infectious Diseases by Public health failure
  64. ___: the study of where and when diseases occur
  65. ___: Collection and analysis of data
    Descriptive Epidemiology
  66. ___: Comparison of a diseased group and a healthy group
    Analytical Epidemiology
  67. ___: Controlled experiments
    Experimental Epidemiology
  68. Epidemiology
    • ___: Health care workers report specified disease to local, state, and national offices
    • Case reporting
  69. ___: Physicians are required to report occurrence
    Nationally notifiable diseases