exam 2

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exam 2
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ch 5-7
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  1. Ability
    Test
    • a. intelligence tests; broad range of
    • abilities, supposed to tap into capacity, or potential.
  2. Aptitude
    • Test: measures
    • segments of ability.; still capacity, but in narrowly defined areas,
    • sometimes ability and aptitude are used interchangeably.
  3. Achievement
    Tests
    • a. current level of skill or functioning; measures
    • learned info. And abilities.
  4. Operational
    definition iq
    • i. A
    • definition of a concept in terms of the way it is measured, such as,
    • intelligence is “what the tests test”
  5. Real
    Definition iq
    • i. A
    • definition that seeks to tell us the true nature of the thing being defined.
  6. 1.
    What
    are the common themes to all definitions of intelligence?
    • a. Capacity
    • to learn from experience

    • b. Capacity
    • to adapt to the environment
  7. Spearman
    • a.
    • Developed the two factor theory of intelligence (g & s factors) general
    • intelligence + Specific factors.


    • i. General
    • Ability (G) required for all mental tests of ability.


    • ii. Specific
    • Factors (s): special Abilities required for performance on just one.
  8. Thurstone
    • first Multi-factor
    • approach to assessment of intelligence. Said there are 7 broad factors of
    • intelligence.
  9. Yerkes
  10. worked with army to preform intelligence
    tests to assess army recruits during WWI.
  11. Wechsler
  12. Critical on the heavy verbal loading in the
    • Standford-Binet Test. Developed a
    • test to included verbal and non-verbal measures. Most used test in adults and
    • children.
  13. Cattell
    • a.
    • G factor could be further divided: gf
    • (fluid
    • intelligence. Aptitude, may
    • involve drawing inferences, forming concepts, generating and testing hypo.,
    • understanding implications, inductive reasoning, and deductive reasoning. .
    • nonverbal and heavey depondent on exposure to specific culture.); gc (crystallized
    • intelligence. Achievement, solve/learn problems, depended
    • upon your culture and life experiences). Developed
    • and IQ test that attempted to assess only fluid analytical reasoning skills,
    • Cattell Culture Fair intelligence test.
  14. Guilford
    • a.
    • Structure
    • of the intellect model, expanded thurstone’s theory. 150 factors of
    • intelligence falling into categories of contents, products and operations.
  15. Gardner
    • disagreed with Spearman’s G’. prposed idea of multiple
    • intelligences included linguistic, musical, logical-mathematical, pscail,
    • bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence. Emotional intelligence.
  16. Sternberg
    • Trarchic
    • theory of intelligence. Emphasize pratical intelligence, good memory,
    • speed of processing and adaption ability. 1.
    • Componential subtheory
    • (analytical); metacomponents, performance, knowledge acquisition- strategies to
    • enhance performance. 2. Experiential
    • subtheory (creative); Novelty-automation- ability to deal with novel
    • situations with no previous exposure. 3.
    • Contextual subtheory (practical). Adaption, selection, shaping
    • appropriate response given the contex
  17. How
    do laypersons and experts define intelligence? Similarities? Differences?
    • a. For
    • the most part equally agree BUT experts place a greater emphasis on verbal
    • skills, and lay ppl on practical problem solving skills.
  18. 1.
    What
    do we know about the stability of IQ?
    • a.
    • Fairly stable, older the personal the more
    • stable iQ, health and living conditons can cause iQ can effect iQ.
  19. What
    do we know about the correlates of IQ?
    • 1)family
    • size; those with smaller families score higher. 2) birth order; 1st
    • born score higher. 3)SES; kids with lower/working class fam score on average
    • 10-20pts. Below the middle and upper class children. 4) ethnicity; Asians score better than whites,
    • whites score better than latino & black.
  20. What do we know about decline in intelligence with age?
    • 1. ?
    • Mixed evidence, most decline seen in fluid
    • Intelligence.
  21. Wppsi-3
    • Wechsler Preschool
    • and primary scale of intelligence. Ages 3-7.5
  22. WISC-4,
    • WechslerIntelligence Scale for Children
    • Ages 6.5-16.5.
  23. WISC-4 background
    i. Score obtained: mean = 100, SD= 15


    ii. Subtests:

    • 1. Block
    • designed

    2. Similarities


    • 3. Digit
    • span

    • 4. Picture
    • concepts

    5. Coding

    6. Vocab

    • 7. Letter-number
    • sequencing

    • 8. Matrix
    • reasoning

    9. Comprehension

    • 10. Simple
    • search

    • 11. //picture
    • completion

    12. Cancellation

    13. Information

    14. Arithmetic


    • 15. Word
    • reasoning


    iii. Index score

    • 1.
    • Verbal comprehension index

    • 2.
    • Perceptual reasoning index

    • 3.
    • Working memory index

    • 4.
    • Processing speed index

    • 5.
    • *Full Scale IQ (sum of the 10 core subtests)
  24. Psychometrics for WISC-IV

    Reliability
    • a.
    • split half and test-retest in .90’s

    • b.
    • Subtests range from .79 (cancellation &
    • symbol search) to .90 (letter-number sequencing), most in high .80’s
  25. 1.
    Validity - i. Psychometrics for WISC-IV
    • a.
    • Many studies to support all 3 types of
    • validity

    • b. IQ
    • average of 3 points lower on WISC-IV than on WISC-III (is typical of new tests)
  26. WAIS-4,
    Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale. Ages 16-91.
  27. WAIS-4,
    • i. 15
    • subtests

    • 1.
    • 10 core tests for FSIQ and 4 Composite
    • scores

    • 2.
    • 5 supplemental subtests

    • 3.
    • Same scoring as WISC-IV

    • 4.
    • Slightly different subtests

    • 5.
    • 2 New Subtests on this version
  28. WAIS-4, Standardization, Reliability, Validity
    • Stand; lots of ppl, good
    • relia;1.
    • Exceptional

    • 2.
    • Split half .90-.96, .98 for FSIQ

    • 3.
    • Weaker for subtests scores

    • 4.
    • SEM and 2.6 for 16/17year olds, 2.1 for
    • others

    • 5.
    • 8 point band of error!!!

    • val; 1.
    • Content- very good

    • 2.
    • CRV- correlates
    • very highly w/ other IQ tests

    • 3.
    • Construct-
    • Much research done, highly supportive.
  29. Stanford-Binet
    5ed
    • i. 5
    • factors of intelligence: fluid reasoning, knowledge, quantitative reasoning,
    • visual-spatial reasoning, working memory.


    • ii. Two
    • Domains: verbal & nonverbal


    • iii. M=
    • 100 SD=16


    • iv. 3
    • iQ scores given: FSIQ, VIQ, PIQ

    • Good at testing individuals at the extreme
    • ends of IQ
  30. a.
    Detroit
    Tests of Learning Aptitude-4
    • Ages
    • 6-17


    16scores,

    a lot It has more composite scores than subtests, resulting in overlap.
  31. o
    Kaufman
    Assessment Battery for Children-II
    • §
    • Ages 3-18

    • §
    • Goal of reducing influence of culture/ethnicity
    • on scores

    • §
    • Has a non-verbal index

    • §
    • M= 100 SD= 15

    • §
    • No FSIQ, but rather gives over all scored based
    • on different
    • model

    • ·
    • Luria: mental processing index

    • ·
    • CHC:
    • fluid-crystallized index
  32. o
    Kaufman
    Brief Intelligence Test-2
    • §
    • Screening test

    • §
    • Ages 4-90

    • §
    • Subtests

    • ·
    • Verbal (crystalized 2)

    • ·
    • Nonberbal (fluid-matrices)

    • ·
    • Composite score (overall)

    • §
    • Overestimate iQ by 5+
  33. o
    Why might we use individualized tests of
    achievement?
    • o
    • See what the person has learned

    • o
    • Asses for learning problems
  34. o
    Know the
    general features of the KTEA.
    • o
    • Age 4.5-25.

    • o
    • Screening tool as well, up to 90 yrs old

    • o
    • 8 subtests with 4 areas

    • §
    • Reading, math, written language, oral language.

    • o
    • 3 composite sores

    • §
    • Reading

    • §
    • Math

    • §
    • Written language

    • §
    • total battery composite score

    • §
    • useful for qualitative analysis of error

    • §
    • can check if tests fits with school curriculum
  35. o
    How have learning
    disabilities typically been diagnosed? (i.e., discrepancy approach)
    • o
    • Look for severe discrepancy (1SD) between
    • intelligence and achievement in 1 or 7 areas
  36. o
    What are
    some of the problems with this approach?
    • o
    • some ppl screw up all over the place on different
    • tests

    • o
    • different states use diff criteria

    • o
    • Diff tests produce diff scores.
  37. o
    According
    to the new definition, what are the essential features of a learning
    disability?
    • ·
    • Id a weakness in 1+ area alongside strengths in
    • several areas

    • ·
    • Trace discrepancy to central nervous system or
    • info-processing problems

    • ·
    • Evaluate relevance of psychosocial skills,
    • physical abilities/ sensory abilities to the disability

    • ·
    • Rule out alt explanations

    • ·
    • Determine if kid passes 1-4 meet criteria.
  38. o
    What are the main differences between individual
    and group tests?
    • o
    • Multi choice

    • o
    • Objective scoring

    • o
    • Group administration

    • o
    • Screening
    • purposes

    • o
    • Huge standardize populations
  39. o
    What are the benefits/drawbacks of individual
    and group tests of intelligence?
    • o
    • +large amount of takers

    • o
    • +cheap and easy

    • o
    • +objectively scored

    • o
    • –score low due to motivation or direction issues

    • o
    • –Dependent
    • on reading abilities

    • o
    • – cant differentiate test takers as finely as
    • individual tests

    • o
    • –invalid scores may not be recognized
  40. o
    Know the Shipley-2 in detail (use the slides
    that we went over in class after taking it): original use, actual use,
    subtests, scores obtained, factors affecting performance, psychometric
    properties, etc.
    • o
    • Original
    • use: measure intellectual
    • deterioration

    • o
    • actual
    • Use: measure of general intellectual functioning in edu, counseling,
    • personnel, and research settings.

    • o
    • Subtests: vocabulary and abs traction OR vocab &
    • block patterns

    • o
    • Scores
    • Obtained: added both subtests, M=
    • 100 SD=15

    • o
    • Factors
    • affecting performance: heavily dependent on verbal ability. Not appropriate
    • for: non-native English speakers, individuals with difficulty reading.
    • Abstraction score affected by motivation/attention, and working memory.

    • o
    • Psychometric
    • properties: has improved since it
    • first came out, good diverse standardized population.
  41. o
    Why is
    the MAB-II inappropriately named?
    • o
    • Because it is used for screening, research, and
    • career counseling, not so much Aptitude.
  42. o
    Why are the Culture Fair Intelligence Test
    (CFIT) and Raven’s Progressive Matrices different other group tests of intelligence (ability)?
    What unique approach did each of those tests have/use?
    • o Culture fair intelligence test and raven’s
    • progressive matrices different from other group tests of intelligence(ability)?
    • Tests non-verbal skills

    • o Cool approach: CFIT removed crystalized iQ,
    • free of culture bias. RPM: removed language.
  43. What
    are aptitude tests primarily used for
    • o
    • Career placement
  44. o
    Be familiar with the DAT in some detail: uses,
    general range of subtests, scores, psychometric properties, etc.
    • o
    • Uses: intended
    • for student assessment battery to determine suitability of work or choice of
    • college major.

    • o
    • Subtests
    • range: 8 subtests, well take 3
    • hours to complete.

    • o
    • Scores: gives
    • tests taker a cool visual profile.

    • o Psychometric properties: good
    • reliability (.80-.90), Vr + NA has good ability to predict college grades
    • (.70-.80). lacking gin prediction of job performance.
  45. What
    do we know about the college performance tests & their ability to predict
    college performance?:
    that its good, but high school record is better.
  46. o
    What are
    the postgraduate selection tests (i.e., GRE)? How well do they work?
    • o
    • GRE
    • good/Mcat poor/LSAT ok/ = Aptitude
    • tests.
  47. o
    Why do
    post-selection tests have limited predictive validity?
    • o
    • Bc they only can tests those that get into the
    • school, its not a big rich sample of ppl.
  48. o
    What is
    the essence of the controversy of race differences in intelligence tests
    scores?
    • o
    • Whether tests differences reflect actual group
    • differences or a bias that favors certain groups over others
  49. o What are the 3 main hypotheses that
    attempt to explain group differences in intelligence test scores?
    • o
    • Test Bias Hypothesis: tested are fucked
    • up towards minorities, test are normed on middle class whites.

    • §
    • Response: test now attempt to make tests
    • culture free. Modern tests show low bias, difference could be due to motivation
    • and the value placed on rapid performance on tests.

    • o
    • Genetic Hypo: some groups re genetically
    • smarter than others.

    • §
    • Response: no reliable research to support
    • this hypo., studies found that we are more alike than we are different.

    • o
    • Environmental Hypothesis: IQ influences
    • our iQ., those raised in impoverished environments develop low iQ’s.

    • §
    • Response: supported by studies. Tie in
    • motivation and valued placed on testing.
  50. o
    What is
    the definition of test bias?\
    • o
    • Is a test differentially valid for different
    • groups.
  51. o
    What is
    test fairness?
    • Subjective vales state a test a test is fair in the
    • way it is used to make decisions
  52. o
    What is
    and how do we assess for bias in content validity?
    • o
    • Content validity, does the tests include what we
    • need.

    • o
    • Biase in content validity occurs when an
    • item/subscale of the test is harder for one group and not the other. even
    • though general ability of the two groups is similar.
  53. o
    What is
    and how do we assess for predictive validity bias?
    • o
    • Determined whether we can predict our criterion
    • equally well for members of different groups, if so, tests is not bias.

    • §
    • If test does not meet criteria of homogeneous
    • regression (graph with a precition line and if groups score under or above
    • the line.)then test is bias.

    • o
    • Do the test work well in predictive power, WIS
    • predicts school achievement equally well for whites/blacks/mex.
  54. o
    What is
    and how do we assess for bias in construct validity?
    • o
    • Construct validity is whether a test is shown to
    • measure different hypothetical traits or measure the same trait but with
    • different degrees of accuracy.

    • §
    • Example, ESL kids taking a math word problem
    • tests. This measures English and math for ESL kids, but only math for native
    • Eng. Speakers.
  55. o
    What are
    the three ethical positions regarding social values & test fairness?
    • o
    • Unqualified individualism. –we use any
    • and all valid predictor variables (sex/race/ect.)

    • o
    • Qualified Individualism: selection should
    • be based off of tested abilities with out any other considerations.

    • o
    • Quotas: selection done to reflect the
    • population.
  56. o
    Why is
    testing infants & preschoolers more difficult?
    • o
    • Shorter attention spans

    • o
    • Lack of reading and writing abilities

    • §
    • Individually tested

    • o
    • Lack of motivation
  57. o
    Why do we
    test infants? What are the main uses of test results?
    • o
    • iD developmental delay or brain damage

    • o
    • early intervention, leads to better prognosis

    • o
    • not intended for prediction
  58. o
    Be generally familiar with the NBAS test of infant development (i.e., general
    purposes, uses, age ranges).
    • o
    • General
    • Purpose: give parents feedback about babies’ uniqueness, and anticipate
    • responses. Ex) baby cries when held to long, baby is overly stimulated and
    • needs space.

    • o
    • Age
    • range: 2 months, usually first week of life.

    • §
    • Low test reliability/ interrater agreement.
  59. o
    Know the Bayley-III (BSID-III) in more detail: how is
    the test used, what results do you get, age ranges, scores, psychometric
    properties, etc.
    • o
    • Test
    • usage: provides most comprehensive measure of developmental status in
    • infants. tests uses sights, sounds, movements and props to attract babies.

    • o
    • age: 0-3.5 years

    • o
    • results
    • you get: core 5 scales

    • §
    • 1-3 scales, cognitive, motor, language

    • §
    • 4-5 scales, parents questionnaires

    • ·
    • Social-emotional/adaptive behavior.

    • o
    • Psychometric
    • properties

    • §
    • Test-retst
    • reliability: .76

    • §
    • Inter-rater
    • reliability: .75

    § Split-half: .81-.93 (increase with age)

    • § good
    • concurrent validity for identifiying
    • at risk kids and extent of developmental delays.
  60. Your doing great?
  61. o
    Why do
    scores on infant tests correlate low with other tests of intelligence?
    • o
    • Tests are different

    • §
    • Primarily Sensorimotor
    • vs. Primarily Verbal
  62. o
    What type
    of validity is most important for developmental tests?
    • o
    • Concurrent
    • validity

    • § we
    • are looking for agreement across multiple assessments modalities. (tests/paretns/teachers
    • assessment. Ect.)

    • § these
    • test lack predictive validity
  63. § DAS
    • o
    • General
    • Purpose: measures short term memory,
    • speed of info processing, used for clinical analysis only

    • o
    • Background:
    • reliability good for preschoolers

    • o Age: 2.5- 18 years old. (3 overlapping
    • batteries)
  64. § WPPSI-III
    o 2.5-7years old
  65. o
    Know the Denver-II in more detail: how is the
    test used, what results do you get, age ranges, scores, psychometric
    properties, etc.
    • o
    • What
    • results do you get: screening instrument to assess healthy and at risk kids
    • 0-6yrs old.

    • o
    • Age
    • ranges. 0-6yrs old

    • o
    • Scores: series
    • of pass and fail items. 4 areas: personal-social, fine motor, language, gross
    • motor.

    • §
    • Results

    • ·
    • Normal
    • passes each evaluated area

    • ·
    • Questionable
    • one deley in any evaluated area

    • ·
    • Abnormal
    • two or more delays in any evaluated area



    • o Psychometric properties: normed on over
    • 2,000 kids Colorado (south park).

    • § Excellent
    • intterscoring reliability

    • § Test
    • re-test reliability .90

    • ·
    • Test is good at finding salient issues with
    • kids, subtle issues may go undetected.
  66. o
    How is
    the HOME used?
    • o
    • Includes home observation/parent interview
    • provides a measure of physical and social enviro

    • o
    • 3 forms

    • §
    • Infant/toddler, early childhood, middle
    • childhood
  67. o
    What is
    Public Law 93-112?
    • o
    • Bill of rights disabled people.

    • §
    • Outlawed discrimination
  68. o
    What is
    Public Law 94-142?
    • o
    • Education for all handicapped children act

    • §
    • Disabled students must receive appropriate
    • assessment and educational opportunities.
  69. o
    What
    effect did these laws have on testing practices?
    • o
    • Psychologist mandated to assess for disabilities
    • using appropriate measures.
  70. o
    How do we
    approach assessment of special populations?
    • o
    • With appropriate measures.
  71. o
    What is
    the main premise of the nonlanguage tests?
    • o
    • Good for ppl w language impairments.

    • o
    • Nonverbal intelligence tests, culture-reduced
    • exams.
  72. o
    Name the
    most commonly used nonlanguage tests.
    leiter-internation performance scales - revised
  73. o
    What is
    the main premise of the nonreading & motor-reduced tests?
    • o
    • Cant read, issues with speech, motor issues
  74. o
    How do we
    approach testing persons with visual impairments?
    • o
    • Use non-visual stimuli. Verbal and non verbal
    • items.
  75. o
    How do we
    approach testing individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing?

    o
    Give
    traditional tests used sign language
    • o
    • Give
    • traditional tests used sign language

    • §
    • Wechsler performance subtests ex.
  76. o
    What is
    the definition of intellectual disability?
    • o
    • Characterized by significant limitations both in
    • intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual,
    • social, and practical adaptive skills.

    • §
    • 3 PARTS. 1. Prior to 18 years old. 2. iQ under
    • 70., 3. Deficits in adaptive behaviors.
  77. o
    How do we
    assess adaptive behavior?
    • o
    • using different scales

    • §
    • independent behavior-revised

    • §
    • independent living behavior checklist

    • §
    • inventory for client and agency planning
  78. o
    Be
    familiar with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS-II) in some
    detail. Know the general purposes, ages, scales, scores, psychometric
    properties, etc.

    o
    General
    Purposes
    • §
    • to measure personal and social skills used for
    • everyday living

    o Age 5+

    • o
    • Scales
    • M and SD same as regular IQ

    • o
    • Scores.

    • o
    • Psychometric
    • properties: standardization on a ton of ppl

    • §
    • High tests retest reliability (.80-.90)

    • §
    • Good concurrent validity. Correlates with WISC-R
    • ( .47-.70)

    • o
    • How is
    • composed

    • §
    • 5 domains of VABS

    • ·
    • Communication

    • ·
    • Daily living skills

    • ·
    • Socialization

    • ·
    • Motor skills

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