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What are the 2 functions of the respiratory system?
- 1. gas exchange
- 2. acid-based balance
What are the 2 anatomical zones and what are their functions?
- 1. conducting zone: bulk movement of gas
- 2. respiratory zone: gas diffusion between conducting zone and blood
List the parts of the conducting zone from proximal to distal and identify which contain cart. and/or smooth muscle?
- 1. nasal cavity
- 2. pharynx
- 3. larynx- cartilage
- 4. trachea- cartilage rings
- 5. bronchus- cartilage and smooth muscle
- 6. bronchiole
- 7. terminal bronchiole
Define epiglottis and location?
larynx > (cart. flap) covers airway during swallowing
Define glottis and location?
larynx > vocal folds and opening
distal functioning unit > surrounded by cappillaries
List the processes that contribute to respiration?
- 1. ventilatin
- 2. external respiration
- 3. internal respiration
- 4. cellular respiration
bulk gas movement in/out of conducting zone
Define external respiration?
gas diffusion between alveolus and blood across the resp. membrane
Define internal respiration?
gas diffusion between blood and cells
Define cellular respiration?
- oxidation of organic compounds to produce CO2 and H2O
- purpose = ATP
What are the components of ventilation?
- 1. inspiration
- 2. expiration
Which component of ventilation is (always) active and why?
- inspiration d/t diaphragm contraction
- * lung volume increases > pressure decreases
Which component of ventilation is passive and why?
- expiration d/t diaphragm relax.
- active (exercise and blockage)
- * lung volume decreases > pressure increases
What type of compound is a surfactant?
What is a surfactant's function?
produced by alveolar epith. > decreases tention of water
What does a surfactant prevent?
Define tidal volume?
air inspired or expired (nl breath)
Define tidal capacity?
max air expired after max inspiration
Define partial pressure?
(P) pressure exerted by a gas in a mixture
Cite the rule that governs gas diffusion?
from high > low partial pressure independently of other gases in the mixture
What are the correct pair of partial pressures that would promote diffusion of a specific gas from one location to another?
- PO2 alveolus > PO2 blood
- PCO2 blood > PCO2 alveolus
How is most oxygen transported in the blood?
How is most carbon dioxide transported in the blood?
List the arterial PO2 values with their corresponding % O2 saturation of hemoglobin values and identify the significiance of each one?
- a. 90 mm Hg= (97% O2 sat.) typical
- b. 60 mm Hg:= (90%) PO2 < 60--> large decrease in O2 sat. (<60 = resp. failure)
- c. 40mm Hg= (75%) symptoms
What stimulus does a central chemoreceptor respond to?
a normal person
How is ventilation rate affected in a central chemoreceptor (normal person)?
small CO2 increase > rate increase
What is the major drive in a normal person?
What stimulus does a peripheral chemoreceptor respond to?
a person with COPD
How is the ventilation rate affected in a peripheral chemoreceptor (COPD)?
large O2 decrease > rate increase
What is the major drive in someone who retains CO2?
Which of these drives are more precise?
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