SAT 2 U.S History
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Italian-born navigator who found fame when he landed in the Americas (October 12,1492).
Originally he sailed West across the Atlantic Ocean to find a water route to Asia.
Columbus was convinced that he found the waterway that he sought and that the Americas were actually an extension of China.
Returned from his expedition with gold, encouraging future exploration.
- Discovery suggested that the expedition had found a "New World"
- A Cartograpther mistakenly thought that Vespucci had led the expedition and had landed in the New World before Christopher Columbus; the cartographer named the continent America
- Aztecs: built cities and huge stone pyramids in Mexico
- Maya: architects and astronomers of Central America who developed a form of writing (quipos)
- Incas: (Peru) complex road system stretched for hundreds of miles through the Andes
- Plains Native Americans: Cheyenne, Crow, and the Sioux lived on the Great Plains- a dry, treeless area.
- Economic philosophy of the 1600's that held that colonies existed to serve thte mother country
- Founded on belief that the world's wealth was sharply limited and, one nation's game is another nation's loss
- Goal: Export more than it imported
- Mercantilists believed economic activity should be regulated by government
European influences and rivalries in Colonial America
- Magna Carta (the Great Charter) of 1215 and the Model Parliment of 1295 had sown seeds of liberty that could not be completely killed
- By 1600 the "divine right of kings" theory was dead or dying fast
- The French, Dutch, and Spanish were much closer to feudalismin the distribution of land; the Patroon system
Queen Elizabeth I
- Popular leader and the first woman to successfully hold the throne
- Invested in English raids on the Spanish New World
- Brought on a war response from Spain in the form of the Spanish Armada
- Established Protestantism in England and encouraged English business
The Spanish Armada
- Fleet assembled by King Philip II of Spain to invade England
- The Armada was defeated by the skill of British military leaders and by rough seas during the assault
- England's victory over Spanish forces established England as an emerging sea power; it was one of the great achievements of Queen Elizabeth I
- Defeat helped bring about the decline of the Spanish empire
Types of Colonies in the New World
- Charter Colony: colonists were essentially members of a corporation and, based on an agreed-upon charter, electors aming the colonists would control the government
- Royal Colony: had a governor selected by Englands's king; he would serve in the leadership role and choose additional, lesser officers
- Proprietary Colonies: were owned by an individual with direct responsibility to the king; the proprietor selected a governor, who served as the authority figure for the property
- Movement by those who wished to reform the Church of England to be more in line with their ideology
- They believed in predestination and in the authority of Scripture over papal authority
- They sought to make the English Church "pure"
Dutch West India Company
- Joint-stock company that ran the colonies in Fort Orange and in New Amsterdam, which later became New York
- Carried on a profitable fur trade with the Native American Iroquois
- Instituted the patroon system , in which large estates were given to wealthy men who transportedat least fifty families to New Netherland to tend the land; few took on the oppurtunity
- Established: 1607
- James I granted charters for charter colonies in the New World
- In 1607, the Virginia Company of London settled Jamestown, the first permanent english settlement
- Swampy location led to disease and contained water sources
- Despite location and hostile relations with Native Americans, John Smith's harsh, charismatic leadership of the colony kept it from collapsing
- In 1619, African slaves arrived at Jamestown, becoming the first gorup of slaves to reach a British settlement
Indenture System (1600s)
- Poor workers, convicted criminals, and debtors recieved immigration passage and fees in return for a number of years at labor on behalf of a planter or company
- Servants entered into their contracts voluntarily and kept some legal rights
- However, servents had little control over the conditions of their work and living arrangements; system led to harsh and brutal treatment
- Enlish colonist in Jamestown Virginia , Virginia
- Married Pocahontas
- Created process for curing tobacco, ensuring economic success for Jamestown
House of Burgesses (1619)
- Representative assembly in Virginia
- Election to a seat was limited to voting members of the charter colony, which at first was all free men; later rules required that a man own at least fifty acres of land to vote
- First representative house in America
- Instituted private ownership of land; maintained rights of colonists
- System used by the Virginia Company to attract colonists; it promised them parcels of land (roughly 50 acres) to emigrate to America
- Also gave nearly fifty acres for each servent that a colonist brought, allowing the wealthy to obtain large tracts of land
The Seperatists and Plymouth
- Seperatists were Puritans who believed the Church of England was beyond saving and felt that they must separate from it
- One group of Separatists suffering from gov. harassment fled to Holland, then to America
- Members of this group traveled on the Mayflower; they became known as the Pilgrims, a term used for voyagers seeing to fulfill a religious mission
- The Mayflower set sail from Plymouth, Englandm in September 1620 and landed in Province Harbor, settling in what became Plymouth, Massachusettes
- Before landing in the New World, the Pilgrims formed the Mayflower Compact, which provided for a government guided by the majority
- William Bradford (1590-1657) was the first governor Plymouth Colony
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