Test 3 study guide

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Test 3 study guide
2011-10-28 17:48:49

Chapter 4 and 5
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  1. Molarity (M)
    M = moles of solute / volume (L) of solution
  2. Dilution Equation
  3. Ideal Gas Law equation
    PV = nRT
  4. Boyle's Law Equation
    P1V1 = P2V2
  5. Molarity
    The molar concentration of a solution, expressed as the number of moles of solute per liter of solution.
  6. Dilution
    The process of making a substance less concentrated by adding a solvent, such as water.
  7. Precipitation Reaction
    Reaction that results in the formation of a solid.
  8. Precipitate
    To separate as a solid from a solution in chemical precipitation.
  9. Molecular Equation
    Equation that consists of all molecules in the reaction.
  10. Complete Ionic Equation
    Contains all of the Ions that participate or are present in the full written out reaction or in the fully written out balanced chemical equation. (STRONG ELECTROLYTES BROKEN INTO IONS)
  11. Net Ionic Equation
    Ionic equation that consists of only the participating ions in the chemical reaction and the product. (WRITTEN AS IONS WITH CHARGES)
  12. Spectator Ions
    Ions that do not necessarily participate in the reaction or formation of what is produced in a chemical reaction.
  13. Acid
    Compounds that form hydrogen ions when dissolved in water, and whose aqueous solutions react with bases and certain metals to form salts. Acids turn blue litmus paper red and have a pH of less than 7. Their aqueous solutions have a sour taste.
  14. Base
    Compounds that form hydroxyl ions (OH) when dissolved in water, and whose aqueous solutions react with acids to form salts. Bases turn red litmus paper blue and have a pH greater than 7. Their aqueous solutions have a bitter taste.
  15. Neutralization Reaction
    Reaction in which acids react with bases to form salts and water.
  16. Volumetric Analysis
    The quantitative analysis of an unknown chemical solution by determining the amount of reagent of known concentration necessary to effect a reaction in a known volume of the solution.
  17. Titration
    The process or operation of determining the concentration of a substance in a solution. Titration is performed by adding to a known volume of the solution a standard reagent of a known concentration in carefully measured amounts until a reaction of definite and known proportion is completed (as shown by a color change or by electrical measurement) and then calculating the unknown concentration.
  18. Indicator
    A chemical compound that changes color and structure when exposed to certain conditions and is therefore useful for chemical tests. Litmus, for example, is an indicator that becomes red in the presence of acids and blue in the presence of bases.
  19. Endpoint
    Point of termination or completion.
  20. Oxidation-Reduction reaction (REDOX REACTION)
  21. Oxidation state
    The Oxidation State of an atom generally indicates how many chemical bonds it is capable of forming with other atoms.
  22. Oxidation
    A chemical reaction in which an atom or ion loses electrons, thus undergoing an increase in valence. Removing an electron from an iron atom having a valence of +2 changes the valence to +3.
  23. Reduction
    A chemical reaction in which an atom or ion gains electrons, thus undergoing a decrease in valence. If an iron atom having a valence of +3 gains an electron, the valence decreases to +2.
  24. Oxidizing Agent
    Chemical compound that readily transfers oxygen atoms or a substance that gains electrons in a redox chemical reaction.
  25. Reducing Agent
    Chemical compound that readily offers (gives away) an electron or a substance that loses electrons in a redox chemical reaction.
  26. Half-Reactions
    A half reaction is a reduction or an oxidation reaction. Both reduction and oxidation must happen simultaneously so that the electron given off by one can be picked up by the other.
  27. Solute
    Substance that is dissolved in another substance (a solvent), forming a solution.
  28. Solvent
    Substance that can dissolve another substance, or in which another substance is dissolved, forming a solution. Water is the most common solvent.
  29. Strong Electrolyte
    An electrolyte that completely dissociates in solution. The solution will contain only ions and no molecules of the electrolyte. Strong electrolytes are good conductors of electricity.
  30. Weak Electrolyte
    An electrolyte that DOES NOT completely dissociate in solution. The solution will contain both ions and molecules of the electrolyte.
  31. Nonelectrolyte
    Substance that does not readily ionize when dissolved or melted and is a poor conductor of electricity.
  32. Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
    The total pressure of a mixture of gases equals the sum of the pressures that each would exert if it were present alone.
  33. Ideal Gas Law
    Relates the variables of pressure, volume, temperature, and number of moles of gas within a closed system.
  34. STP (Standard Temperature and Pressure)
    STP corresponds to 273 K (0° Celsius) and 1 atm pressure.
  35. Mole Fraction
  36. Partial Pressure
    The pressure which the gas would have if it alone occupied the volume.
  37. Kinetic Molecular Theory