Viruses

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Author:
SeanOHair
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112899
Filename:
Viruses
Updated:
2011-10-29 16:01:28
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Micro 150 Crafton Hills College
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Survey of viruses
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  1. What are the three types / categories of viral infections?
    Acute, Latent, and Slow
  2. What are the steps in an acute viral infection?
    Infection -> incubation -> expression of symptoms -> recovery -> no more problem
  3. Give an example of an acute viral infection.
    Common cold
  4. What are the steps in a latent viral infection?
    Infection -> incubation -> expression of symptoms -> probable recovery ->virus remains in body forever and may reactivate later.
  5. Give an example of a latent viral infection.
    Herpes
  6. What are the steps in a slow viral infection?
    Infection -> very long incubation -> expression of symptoms -> death
  7. Give an example of a slow viral infection
    Prion diseases (vCJD, BSE, etc.)
  8. Herpes Simplex 1 belongs to which viral family?
    Herpesviridae
  9. Herpes Simplex 1 causes what symptoms?
    Cold sores and fever blisters
  10. T/F:
    Herpes Simplex 1 is reactivated via sunburns or high fevers.
    True
  11. T/F:
    Herpes Simplex 1 is the STD form of herpes (genital herpes).
    False

    Simplex 2 is the STD form
  12. Herpes Simplex 2 causes what symptoms?
    • Burning or tingling at SOI
    • Fluid-filled blisters at SOI
  13. T/F:
    Herpes Simplex 2 can present as an oral infection.
    True, although a genital infection is more common
  14. T/F:
    Herpes Simplex 2 can reactivate via sunburn or other skin stresses (such as lacerations or stretch marks).
    False

    Reactivation is via physical or emotional stress
  15. T/F:
    Herpes Simplex 2 has a 1 week incubation time.
    True
  16. Herpes Simplex 2 belongs to which viral family?
    Herpesviridae
  17. Varicella-Zoster belongs to which viral family?
    Herpesviridae
  18. What two diseases are caused by Varicella-Zoster?
    Chicken Pox and Shingles
  19. T/F:
    Chicken Pox is acquired through direct contact (skin to skin) with an infected person
    False

    Chicken Pox is acquired via the repiratory system
  20. T/F:
    Chicken Pox has a one week incubation time
    False

    The incubation time is 2 weeks
  21. Where does the Chicken Pox virus "set up shop?"
    Nerve cells in the skin
  22. What sympton does Chicken Pox present?
    Fluid-filled blisters
  23. What causes a reactivation of Varicella-Zoster?
    Stress
  24. What do we call Varicella-Zoster when it does reactivate?
    Shingles
  25. What is a possible complication of Varicella-Zoster?
    Reyes' syndrome
  26. How do you know Reyes' syndrome is happening?
    Patient appears to improve then suddenly takes a drastic downturn presenting vomiting, brain dysfunction, and possibly coma or death
  27. T/F:
    Reyes' syndrome has been linked to giving acetominophen to adults with shingles.
    False

    Although not well understood, Reyes' syndrome has been linked to giving aspirin to children with Chicken Pox.
  28. What symptoms does shingles present?
    Bumpy or scaly skin rash that tends to follow nerve bundles
  29. What do we use to treat shingles?
    Acyclovir
  30. T/F:
    We use acyclovir to treat shingles because it is the most effective cure
    False

    There is no cure. Acyclovir is merely a treatment to diminish the symptoms of shingles
  31. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) belongs to which viral family?
    Herpesviridae
  32. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes what disease?
    Infectious mononucleosis (a.k.a.: Mono)
  33. T/F:
    EBV is transmitted via saliva (ex: kissing)
    True
  34. What is the hallmark symptom of EBV infection?
    Person feels utterly drained of energy
  35. How do we treat EBV infection?
    Bed rest is the only treatment available currently and can last for a week or two to several months
  36. T/F:
    Hepatomegaly is a possible issue with EBV infection
    False

    The possible issue is splenomegaly, not hepatomegaly
  37. T/F:
    Burkitt's lymphoma is a possible complication of EBV infection, but it is almost exclusively seen in Africa.
    True
  38. Papilloma virus belongs to which viral family?
    Papoviridae
  39. T/F:
    Papoviridae is a family of single-stranded linear RNA viruses
    False

    Papoviridae is a family of double-stranded circular DNA viruses
  40. Papilloma virus causes _____ in humans and a few strains have been implicated in _____.
    Warts, cervical cancer
  41. Polyoma virus belongs to what viral family?
    Papoviridae
  42. Polyoma and _____ cause a variety of cancers in _____.
    Simian viruses, animals
  43. Adenovirus belongs to the _____ family and is a _____-stranded _____ virus.
    Adenoviridae, double, DNA
  44. Adenovirus causes what?
    Severe respiratory infections
  45. What physical feature does adenovirus have to help it adhere to host cells?
    Spikes
  46. Smallpox and Cowpox both belong to which viral family?
    Poxviridae
  47. Poxviridae is a family of _____-stranded linear _____ viruses
    Double, DNA
  48. T/F:
    Smallpox and Cowpox are so closely related that if you acquire immunity to one of them, you will also be immune to the other.
    True

    This is the basis for the smallpox vaccination, and the origin of the word 'vaccination', as cowpox scrapings were inoculated into people to give them immunity to smallpox ("vaca" is Italian for 'cow')
  49. Why does vaccination work so well for smallpox/cowpox but not for other DNA viruses?
    Poxviridae viruses are very stable, genetically speaking, meaning they have a very slow mutation rate so a vaccine will be effective for a long time
  50. Picornaviridae is a family of _____-stranded linear _____ viruses
    Single, RNA
  51. Polio virus belongs to which viral family?
    Picornaviridae
  52. T/F
    Polio virus is a single-stranded circular DNA virus
    False

    It belongs to the picornaviridae family, so it is a single-stranded linear RNA virus
  53. T/F:
    Polio is still a great viral threat for children in the developed world.
    False

    It has been almost eradicated in developed countries
  54. The rhinoviruses belong to which viral family?
    Picornaviridae
  55. T/F:
    The rhinoviruses are single-stranded linear RNA viruses.
    True, that's why they belong to Picornaviridae
  56. What do the rhinoviruses cause?
    Common colds
  57. What are the 3 reasons the common cold is so 'common?'
    • 1. Diversity of the rhinovirus strains
    • 2. Lack of drugs to cure rhinovirus
    • 3. Lack of durable immunity (immunity to a strain will shortly wear off)
  58. T/F:
    The flu vaccinations have to be renewed every year because they are not effective
    False

    There is a new flu vaccine every year because there is a new strain of the flu every year
  59. Paramyxoviruses are a family of _____-stranded linear _____viruses
    Single, RNA
  60. _____ is a large group of paramyxoviruses that cause the flu
    Parainfluenza
  61. Rubeola is also known by what name?
    Measels
  62. Rubeola belongs to which viral family?
    Paramyxoviridae
  63. T/F:
    It is actually quite difficult to transmit rubeola.
    False

    Measles are highly contagious
  64. T/F:
    Rubeola is transmitted via respiratory secretions.
    True
  65. In what year was the first rubeola vaccine introduced and what was the result of that introduction?
    1963, and the incidence of measles fell drastically in the U.S. until the mid 1980's
  66. Why did measles make a come-back in the 1980's in the U.S.?
    • 1. Lack of durable immunity
    • 2. Vaccine was only about 95% effective
    • 3. Many were never vaccinated
  67. What is the incubation time for rubeola?
    11-14 days
  68. What are the symptoms of rubeola infection?
    Patient will present with cold-like symptoms (sore throat, headache, cough), rash is possible which may also be in the oral cavity
  69. What are Koplik Spots and what do they signify?
    Koplik spots are the oral rash indicating rubeola infection
  70. One in 2000 people infected with rubeola will develop this complication.
    Encephalitis
  71. What viral family does mumps belong to?
    Paramyxoviridae
  72. Mumps virus is a _____-stranded _____ _____ virus.
    single, linear, RNA
  73. Mumps infects what part of the body?
    Salivary glands
  74. What symptoms does mumps present?
    Painful, swollen salivary glands usually accompanied by fever and painful swallowing
  75. Why should adult males be particularly concerned about mumps?
    4-7 days after the onset of symptoms, the virus can cause the testicles to become inflamed and lead to sterility
  76. T/F:
    Mumps has a 2 week incubation time.
    False

    The incubation time is 16-18 days
  77. Rubella belongs to which viral family?
    Togaviridae
  78. Rubella is also known by what common name?
    German measles
  79. T/F:
    Rubella is stronger and more aggressive than rubeola.
    False

    Rubella is the milder form of measles
  80. T/F:
    Like rubeola, rubella is transmitted via respiratory secretions.
    True
  81. T/F:
    Rubella has a 2-3 week incubation time
    True
  82. What symptoms does rubella present?
    Patient may be asymptomatic, or they may present with a mild rash and a slight fever
  83. What complications can occur with rubella infection?
    • - Encephalitis
    • - Congenital Rubella Syndrome in fetus (sort of like congenital toxoplasmosis)
    • - Loss of hearing
    • - Cataracts
    • - Heart defects
    • - Mental retardation
  84. T/F:
    The complications possible from rubella infection are very rare.
    True
  85. Rhabdoviridae is a _____-stranded _____ virus family
    Double, RNA
  86. Rabies virus belongs to which viral family?
    Rhabdoviridae
  87. T/F:
    Rabies can only infect humans, dogs, and some wild animal species.
    False

    Rabies can infect any mammal species
  88. Describe the morphology of the rabies virus.
    Bullet shaped with an envelope and spikes
  89. Why is rabies not very common in the U.S.?
    • People are pretty dilligent about vaccinating pets
    • Many programs to vaccinate wild animal populations, usually via oral methods
    • Post-Exposure Treatment (PET) protocol
  90. What is PET?
    Post-Exposure Treatment is a series of IM injections after being exposed to rabies that will prevent the disease
  91. T/F:
    Rabies is transmitted via saliva.
    True
  92. How long is the incubation period for rabies?
    30 - 50 days, but can be up to 6 years
  93. What does the length of incubation time for rabies depend upon?
    How nerve-rich the bitten area is (shorter incubations come from bites in nerve-dense areas while longer times come from bites in nerve-poor areas)
  94. T/F:
    Rabies travels to the brain from the SOI via the bloodstream.
    False

    The virus follows the peripheral nerves to the CNS
  95. What complication does rabies cause?
    Encephalitis
  96. What characterizes an animal infected with rabies?
    Alternating periods of agitation and calmness, violent throat spasms (this is the source of the 'foaming mouth') triggered by water (even just the sight of it)
  97. Name and describe the two forms of rabies.
    • Furious rabies- animal is highly aggressive
    • Paralytic rabies- animal is minimally exciteable
  98. T/F:
    Rabies eventually causes death due to damage to the nerves and brain tissues.
    True
  99. Retroviridae is a family of _____-stranded _____ viruses.
    Double, RNA
  100. What viral family do the RNA tumor viruses belong to?
    Retroviridae
  101. What do the RNA tumor viruses cause?
    Leukemias and cancers in animals
  102. HIV belongs to which viral family?
    Retroviridae
  103. T/F:
    All forms of hepatitis have the same symptoms.
    True
  104. Symptoms of hepatitis
    • Anorexia
    • Malaise
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Diarrhea
    • Headache
    • Fever
    • Chills
    • Jaundice
    • Abdominal discomfort
  105. Infectious hepatitis is the common name for which strain of hepatitis?
    Hep A
  106. Hep A is a _____-stranded _____ virus.
    Single, RNA
  107. T/F:
    HAV has no envelope.
    True
  108. What are the transmission vectors for HAV?
    Fecal-oral route and contaminated mollusks
  109. HAV localizes where?
    Epithelial cells of the GI tract
  110. T/F:
    A systemic infection of HAV occurs when the virus enters the bloodstream, and this is referred to as "viriosis."
    False

    A systemic HAV infection occurs when the virus begins multiplying in the epithelial cells of the GI tract, and this is called "viremia."
  111. Where is the highest HAV viral load found?
    Feces
  112. Where else besides the feces can HAV viral load be found (to a lesser degree)?
    Saliva, blood, and urine
  113. T/F:
    HAV can survive outside a host for only a few hours.
    False

    It can survive for several days
  114. T/F:
    HAV is partially resistant to disinfectants.
    True
  115. What is the incubation time for HAV?
    2-6 weeks
  116. Who is most likely to express HAV symptoms and for how long?
    Adults for about 2-21 days
  117. What is the treatment for HAV infection?
    There is none; you have to just let it run its course.
  118. T/F:
    There is a vaccine for HAV, but it does not last long.
    False

    The vaccine does give long-term immunity
  119. In 2/3 of HAV patients, this symptom is seen.
    Jaundice
  120. Hep B is known by what common name?
    Serum hepatitis
  121. HBV is a _____-stranded _____ virus.
    Double, DNA
  122. T/F:
    HBV has no envelope.
    False

    HBV is an enveloped virus
  123. Where does the envelope around a virus come from?
    It is part of the host cell's membrane.
  124. T/F:
    HBV is transmitted via contaminated body fluids and this is called the 'parenteral' route.
    True, this is why it is called serum hepatitis and poses such a risk to healthcare workers
  125. What is the incubation time for HBV?
    4-26 weeks (but it is mostly close to 4 weeks)
  126. T/F:
    Jaundice is slightly less common in HBV than HAV.
    False

    It is more common
  127. T/F:
    HBV has a 90% recovery rate.
    True
  128. T/F:
    HBV is dangerous because it poses risks to the liver, but not deadly since there is no mortality rate for it.
    False

    While HBV does pose risks to the liver, it also carries a 1% short-term mortality.
  129. T/F:
    After recovery, about 30% of HBV hosts will become lifetime carriers of the virus.
    False

    10% will become permanent carriers
  130. T/F:
    There is great concern about HBV because there is no cure and no vaccine for it.
    False

    There is no cure, however there IS a vaccine
  131. HCV is a _____-stranded _____ virus.
    Double, RNA
  132. T/F:
    HCV has an envelope.
    True
  133. How is HCV transmitted?
    • Fecal-oral route
    • Parenteral route
  134. What is the incubation time for HCV?
    2-25 weeks
  135. T/F:
    There is no vaccine and no cure for HCV.
    True
  136. T/F:
    HCV carries great risk of liver damage.
    True
  137. HDV is a _____-stranded _____ virus.
    Single, RNA
  138. T/F:
    HDV is an enveloped virus.
    True
  139. T/F:
    If you have been infected with HDV, you must have also been infected with HBV at some point.
    True, you cannot get HDV without HBV being there
  140. What is the incubation period for HDV?
    Unknown
  141. T/F:
    If you have HDV, you are all but assured to have severe liver damage.
    True
  142. T/F:
    There is no cure and no vaccine for HDV.
    True, however, since you MUST be infected with HBV to get HDV, getting the vaccine for HBV will cover you
  143. What is the short-term mortality rate for HDV?
    About 17%
  144. HEV is a _____-stranded _____ virus.
    Single, RNA
  145. T/F:
    HEV has no envelope.
    True
  146. How is HEV transmitted?
    Fecal-oral route
  147. What is the incubation time for HEV?
    2-6 weeks
  148. T/F:
    HEV carries a higher short-term mortality rate for pregnant women, but no one knows why.
    True
  149. T/F:
    HEV carries high risk for severe liver damage.
    False

    Chronic liver damage is not common in HEV
  150. T/F:
    There is no cure for HEV, but there is a vaccine.
    False

    There is no cure and no vaccine.

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