SAT 2 U.S History

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  1. Mercantilism
    • Economic philosophy of the 1600s that held that colonies existed to serve the mother country
    • Founded on the belief that the world's wealth was sharply limited and therefore, one nation's gain was another nation's loss
    • Goal: export more than import
    • Mercantalists believed that economic activity should be regulated by the government
  2. Queen Elizabeth I
    • First woman to hold the throne
    • Invested in English raids on the Spanish New World
    • Brought on a war response from Spain in the for of the Spanish Armada
    • Established Protestantism in England and encouraged English business
  3. The Spanish Armada
    • Fleet assembled by King Philip II of Spain to invade England
    • The Armada was defeated by the skill of British military leaders and by rough seas during the assault
    • Englands victory over Spanish forces established England as an emerging sea power; it was one of the great achievements of Queen Elizabeth I
    • Defeat helped bring about the decline of the Spanish empire
  4. Types of Colonies in the New World
    • Charter: colonists were essentially members of a corporation and based on an agreed-upon charter, electors among the colonists would control the gov
    • Royal: had a governer selected by England's king; he would serve in the leadership role and choose additional, lesser officers
    • Proprietary: were owned by an individual with direct responsibility to the king; the proprietor selected a governor , who served as the authority figure for the property
  5. English Puritanism
    • Movement by those who wished to reform the Church of England to be more in line with their ideology
    • Puritans were calvanist in their religious beliefs; they believed in predestination and in the authority of Scripture over papal authority
    • Puritans rejected these Roman Catholic holdovers; they sought to make the English church "pure"
  6. Dutch West India Company
    • Carried on a profitable fur trade with the Native American Iroquois
    • Instituted the patroon system, in which large estates were given to wealthy men who transported at least fifty families to New Netherland to tend the land; few took on the oppurtunity
  7. Jamestown
    • Established: 1607
    • James I granted charters for charter colonies in the New World
    • In 1607, the Virginia Company of London settled Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement
    • Despite location and hostile relations with Native Americans, John Smith's harsh, charismatic leadership of the colony kept it from collapsing
    • in 1619, African slaves arrived at Jamestown, becoming the first group of slaves to reach a British settlement
  8. Indenture System
    • Poor workers, convicted criminals, and debtors recieved immigration passage and fees in return for a number of years at labor on behalf of a planter or company
    • Servents entered into their contracts voluntarily and kept some legal rights
    • However, servents had little control over conditions of their work and living arrangements; system led to harsh and brutal treatment
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SAT 2 U.S History
CRAM for SAT 2 Subject test
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