Microbiology Chapter #12

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aji
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112919
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Microbiology Chapter #12
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2011-11-02 02:48:59
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itsaji PHCC
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The Eukaryotes: Fungi, Algae, Protozoa, and Helminths
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  1. Fungi are beneficial in many ways:
    • Important to the food chain
    • Nearly all plants live in symbiosis with fungi
    • Used as food, to make food, and some drugs
  2. Fungi exist in two forms:
    Yeast and Molds
  3. When identifying yeasts, use
    biochemical tests
  4. When identifying molds, use
    Physical appearance and reproductive spores.
  5. Fungal colonies involved in catabolism and growth are called
    Vegetative
  6. The body of a mold is called a ___
    Thallus
  7. Mold consist of long filamentous cells joined together called ___
    Hyphae.
  8. Most molds contain hyphae with crosswalls called ___
    Septa.
  9. Some species of mold have no septate hyphae and are called
    Coenocytic
  10. The fungal thallus consists of
    Hyphae
  11. A mass of hyphae is a
    Mycelium.
  12. Hyphae grow by elongation of
    The tips
  13. There are two types of hyphae:
    • Vegetative
    • Aerial
  14. Aerial hyphae often have
    Reproductive spores
  15. Hyphae grow into larger masses called
    Mycelium
  16. ___ are unicellular fungi
    Yeasts
  17. Yeasts those that divide by fission
    (Fission yeasts)
  18. Yeasts those that divide by Budding
    (budding yeasts)
  19. Some Yeasts produce by budding in long chains
    (pseudohyphae)
  20. Yeast is Capable of ___ growth
    Facultative anaerobic
  21. Fission yeasts divide
    Symmetrically
  22. Budding yeasts divide
    Asymmetrically
  23. Some fungi which can exist in either form:___
    Dimorphic
  24. Molds form hyphae and reproduce by ___
    Spores.
  25. Yeasts reproduce by ___
    Budding.
  26. Dimorphism is usually ___ dependent
    Temperature
  27. ___ are yeastlike at 37°C and moldlike at 25°C
    Pathogenic dimorphic fungi
  28. ___ can reproduce asexually by fragmentation of hyphae or sexually and asexually by the formation of spores
    Molds
  29. Fungal spores are ___ structures
    Reproductive
  30. Asexual spores are formed at the end of ___
    Aerial hyphae
  31. ___ result from the fusion of two nuclei of opposite mating strains.
    Sexual spores
  32. Asexual spores are produced by individual fungi by mitosis at the end of ___
    Aerial hyphae
  33. There are several types asexual spores:
    • Arthrospore
    • Chlamydospore
    • Sporagiospore
    • Conidiospore
    • Blastoconidia
  34. A sexual fungal spore results from sexual reproduction in three phases:
    • Plasmogamy : donor cell penetrates a recipient cell
    • Karyogamy : nuclei fuse forming a diploid cell
    • Meiosis : diploid nucleus gives rise to haploid nuclei which are the sexual spores
  35. ___: Fusion of haploid cells produces one zygospore
    Zygospore
  36. ___: Formed in a sac (ascus).
    Ascospore
  37. ___: Formed externally on a pedestal(basidium)
    Basidiospore
  38. Medically Important Phyla of Fungi
    • Zygomycota
    • Ascomycota
    • Anamorphs
    • Basidiomycota
  39. Fungal Divisions
    • Zygomycota
    • Ascomycota
  40. Division Zygomycota (Zygote Fungi)
    • Black bread mold
    • Rhizopus stolonifer
  41. Division Ascomycota (Sac Fungi)
    • Peziza cups
    • Morals
    • Truffles
  42. Division Basidiomycota ( Club Fungi)
    Mushrooms, Shelf Fungi, and Stinkhorns
  43. ___Produce asexual spores only
    Anamorphs
  44. Rrna sequencing places most in Ascomycota a few are Basidiomycota
    • Penicillium
    • Sporothrix (subcutaneous mycosis)
    • Stachybotrys, Coccidioides, Pneumocystis (systemic mycoses)
    • Candida albicans (cutaneous mycoses)
  45. Anamorphs Nutritional Adaptations
    • Grow best in an acid ph of about 5.0
    • Almost all molds are aerobic while most yeasts are facultative anaerobes.
    • Most fungi are resistant to osmotic pressure.
    • Can grow with very low moisture.
    • Require less nitrogen than bacteria.
    • Capable of metabolizing complex carbohydrates.
  46. Economic Effects of Fungi
    • Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Bread, wine, HBV vaccine
    • Trichoderma: Cellulase
    • Taxomyces: Taxol
    • Entomophaga: Biocontrol
    • Paecilomyces: Kills termites
  47. Fungal Diseases is also known as
    Mycoses
  48. Systemic mycoses:
    Deep within body
  49. Subcutaneous mycoses:
    Beneath the skin
  50. Cutaneous mycoses:
    Affect hair, skin, and nails
  51. Superficial mycoses:
    Localized, e.g., hair shafts
  52. Opportunistic mycoses:
    Caused by normal microbiota or environmental fungi
  53. ___are plant-like protists Some are unicellular, some are multicellular
    Algae
  54. ___ requires water for reproduction and nutrient absorption
    Algae
  55. The body of Algae is called a
    Thallus
  56. Stems of algae are called
    Stipes
  57. Leaf-like structure in algae
    Blades
  58. Root-like structure in algae
    Holdfasts
  59. All species can reproduce ___
    Asexually
  60. Algae are ___
    Photoautotrophs
  61. All have ___ and some other colored pigment
    Chlorophyll
  62. Brown algae (kelp)
    Phaeophyta
  63. ___ has Cellulose and alginic acid cell walls
    Phaeophyta
  64. ___ has Chlorophyll a and c, xanthophylls
    Phaeophyta
  65. ___Store carbohydrates
    Phaeophyta
  66. ___ is Harvested for algin
    Phaeophyta
  67. ___ is Red algae
    Rhodophyta
  68. ___ has Chlorophyll a and d, phycobiliproteins
    Rhodophyta
  69. ___Store glucose polymer
    • Harvested for agar and carrageenan
    • Rhodophyta
  70. ___is Green algae
    Chlorophyta
  71. ___ has Chlorophyll a and b
    Chlorophyta
  72. ___Store glucose polymer and Gave rise to plants
    Chlorophyta
  73. ___ has Pectin and silica cell walls
    Diatoms
  74. ___ has Chlorophyll a and c, carotene, xanthophylls
    Diatoms
  75. ___ Store oil
    Diatoms
  76. Fossilized ___formed oil
    Diatoms
  77. ___Produce domoic acid
    Diatoms
  78. ___has Cellulose in plasma membrane
    Dinoflagellates
  79. ___ has Chlorophyll a and c, carotene, xanthins
    Dinoflagellates
  80. ___ Store starch
    Dinoflagellates
  81. Plankton Produces ___
    Oxygen
  82. Some Plankton produce toxins:___
    Gymnodinium breve Alexandrium
  83. Dinoflagellates Algal blooms ___
    Red tide
  84. Oomycota is a Water molds with Cellulose cell walls which Produce
    Zoospores
  85. Algae is Important in ___
    Aquatic food chain
  86. 80% of Earth O2 is produced by ___
    Planktonic algae
  87. Most of the world’s petroleum is formed from ___ & ___
    Diatoms and plankton
  88. Lichen is a combination of an ___ & ___
    Algae and a fungus (symbiosis)
  89. Three types of lichens:
    • Crustose
    • Foliose
    • Frutiose
  90. Protozoa are First ___
    Animal
  91. ___are unicellular, eukaryotic chemoheterotrophic organisms (protista)
    Protozoa
  92. Protozoa is Vegetative form is a
    Trophozoite
  93. Protozoa’s Asexual reproduction is by ___, ___ or ___
    • Fission, budding or schizogony
    • Protozoa Sexually reproduce by ___
    • Conjugation
  94. Only One Protozoa contains chlorophyll ie ___
    Euglena
  95. All Protozoa live in areas with a large supply of ___
    Water
  96. All protozoa contain a ___ and ___
    Vacuole and anal pore
  97. Medically Important Phyla of Protozoa
    • Archaezoa
    • Microspora
    • Amoebozoa
    • Apicomplexa
    • Ciliophora
    • Euglenozoa
  98. Characterstics of Archaezoa
    • No mitochondria
    • Multiple flagella
    • Giardia lamblia
    • Trichomonas vaginalis (no cyst stage)
  99. Characterstics of Microspora
    • No mitochondria
    • Nonmotile
    • Intracellular parasites
    • Nosema
  100. Characterstics of Amoebozoa
    • Move by pseudopods
    • Entamoeba
    • Acanthamoeba
  101. Characterstics of Apicomplexa
    • Nonmotile
    • Intracellular parasites
    • Complex life cycles
    • Plasmodium
    • Babesia
    • Cryptosporidium
    • Cyclospora
  102. Characterstics of Ciliates
    • Move by cilia
    • Complex cells
    • Balantidium coli is the only human parasite
  103. Characterstics of Euglenozoa
    Move by flagella
  104. Euglenoids are ___
    Photoautotrophs
  105. Hemoflagellates - Trypanosoma spp. causes ___
    • Sleeping sickness
    • Chagas’ disease
  106. ___ are parasitic animals that spend part or all of their lives in humans
    Helminths
  107. Most Helminths belong to two phylum:
    • Platyhelminthes (flatworms)
    • Nematoda (roundworms)
  108. Characteristics of Helminths
    • Reduced digestive system
    • Reduced nervous system
    • Reduced locomotion
    • Complex reproduction
  109. Life Cycle of Helminths - Monoecious (hermaphroditic)
    Male and female reproductive systems in one animal
  110. Life Cycle of Helminths - Dioecious
    • Separate male and female
    • Egg -> larva(e) -> adult
  111. Helminths (Parasitic Worms)
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Platyhelminthes (flatworms)
    • Class: Trematodes (flukes)
    • Class: Cestodes (tapeworms)
    • Phylum: Nematoda (roundworms)
  112. Tapeworm’s Head is called ___
    A scolex
  113. Tapeworm’s Body consists of
    Progottids
  114. Characterstics of Nematodes
    • Roundworms
    • Complete Digestive systems
    • Most Dioecious
    • Two catagories
    • Egg infective
    • Larvae infective
  115. Arthropods as Vectors
    • May transmit diseases (vectors)
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Arthropoda (exoskeleton, jointed legs)
    • Class: Insecta (6 legs)
    • Lice, fleas, mosquitoes
    • Class: Arachnida (8 legs)
    • Mites and ticks
  116. Arthropods as Vectors
    • Mechanical transmission
    • Biological transmission
    • Microbe multiplies in vector

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