Chemistry Unit 3

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Chemistry Unit 3
2011-11-07 20:05:25

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  1. Moseley
    arranged by nuclear charge (# of protons)
  2. Periodic Law
    Physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers
  3. Modern Periodic Table
    arranged by atomic # and similar properties in groups
  4. Lanthanides
    shiny metals similar reactivity to group 2
  5. Actinides
    all radioactive, Th –Np naturally occurring, others laboratory created
  6. Mendeleev:
    grouped elements by similar properties, arranged by increasing atomic mass, left spaces for “unknown” elements
  7. Periodicity
    regular repeating pattern of properties across a period in the PT
  8. 4 blocks of PT
    s, f, d, p
  9. S-block
    alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, hydrogen, helium
  10. Alkali metals
    silvery appearance, soft, extremely reactive, MP decreases down the group
  11. Alkaline earth metals
    contain pair of electrons in s sublevel, harder, denser, stronger than alkali metals, very reactive
  12. Hydrogen
    does not share properties with alkali metals, gas at room temp, flammable
  13. Helium
    located in group 18, chemically stable, nonreactive
  14. Diatomic Molecules
    molecules are molecules composed only of two atoms, of either the same or different chemical elements.
  15. P-block
    groups 13-18,includes metals, nonmetals, and metalloids (not including Helium)
  16. Halogens
    Most reactive nonmetals, react with metals to form salts, F and Cl are gases, Br liquid, I and At solids (F, Br, Cl, I exist as diatomic molecules: F2, Br2, Cl2, I2)
  17. Noble Gases
    Nonreactive, inert gases
  18. Metalloids
    brittle solids, some conductivity of electricity but not as much as metals
  19. P-block metals
    harder and denser than s-block, softer and less dense than d-block, stable in presence of air
  20. F-block
    lanthanides and actinides (inner transition metals)
  21. Atomic radii
    radius of atom, indicates volume
  22. Period trend:
    atomic radii (size) decreases across a period from group 1 to group 18
  23. Group trend
    atomic radii (size) increases down a group from period 1 to period 7
  24. Atomic radius
    may be defined as one-half the distance between the nuclei of identical atoms that are bonded together.
  25. Ion
    an atom or group of bonded atoms that has a positive or negative charge.
  26. Ionization
    Any process that results in the formation of an ion
  27. Ionization energy, IE
    The energy required to remove one electron from a neutral atom of an element
  28. electron affinity
    The energy change that occurs when an electron is acquired by a neutral atom
  29. Cation
    Posotive Ion
  30. Anion
    Negative Ion
  31. valence electrons
    The electrons available to be lost, gained, or shared in the formation of chemical compounds
  32. Electronegativity
    a measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons from another atom in the compound