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  1. pelvic girdle/pelvis


    • 2 hip bones
    • ilium, ischium, pubis
  2. joint/articulations of pelvic girdle
    r/l sacroiliac joints-posterolaterally

    symphysis pubis-anteriorly

    lumbosacral joint-superiorly

    Image Upload 1
  3. thigh
    • femur
    • patella
  4. leg

  5. foot
    • 7 tarsal bones
    • calcaneus
    • talus
    • navicular
    • cuboid
    • 3 cuneiforms
    • 5 metatarsals
    • 14 phalanges
  6. hip
    most proximal of lower extremity joints

    important in weight-bearing

    • ball and socket joint
    • convex-femoral head
    • convex-acetabulum

    very stable

    less range of motion than shoulder
  7. triaxial joint
    motion in all 3 planes
  8. flexion-0-120
    • extension- 120-0
    • hyperextension- 0-15
    • abduction: 0-45
    • adduction: 0-25
    • lateral rotation: 0-45
    • medial rotation: 0-45
  9. pelvis=pelvic girdle
    hip bones+sacrum+coccyx

    • 2 hip bones connected
    • anteriorly to each other

    posteriorly to the sacrum

    sacrum connected to the coccyx
  10. joint capsule
    • strong and thick
    • covers hip cylindrically

    attaches proximally-around lip of acetabulum

    distally-neck of femur

    forms a cylindrical sleeve

    encloses the joint and most of the femoral neck
  11. hip ligaments
    • all attach along rim of acetabulum to femoral neck
    • ****iliofemoral-Y ligament/ligament of bigalow. limits hyperextension

    • ischiofemoral
    • pubofemoral

    cross hip joint in a spiral fashion

    • results:
    • limiting hyperextension (taut)
    • allowing flexion (slack)
    • enables standing upright w/o use of muscles
  12. spiral attachment of ligaments limits hyperextension
    • Image Upload 2
    • rest on Y ligament

    w/o use of muscles

    basis for standing posture is individuals with paraplegia
  13. acetabular labrum
    increases depth of acetabulum


    located around the rim

    surrounds the femoral head

    assists in holding the head in the acetabulum
  14. muscles of the hip
    many similarities between shoulder and hip joints

    • 1-joint muscles providing control
    • movement at 1 joint

    • 2 joint muscles-providing range of motion
    • movement at 2 joints

    can be grouped by location and function

    • anterior-flexors
    • posterior-extensors
    • medial-adductors
    • lateral-abductors
  15. muscles of hip



    *?*Iliopsoas*?* (Iliacus &Psoas Major)

    • Medial
    • Pectineus
    • Adductor magnus, longus, brevis


    • Gluteus maximus
    • Deep rotators (6)


    • Gluteus medius
    • Gluteus minimus
  16. muscles of the hip
    two joint
    Two-Joint Muscles


    • Rectus femoris
    • Sartorius
    • Gracilis


    • Semimembranosus
    • Semitendinosus
    • Biceps femoris

    • Lateral
    • Tensor fascia latae
  17. Iliopsoas
    more about flexing trunk on femor as opposed to femor on trunk

    2 muscles-iliacus and psoas major

    blend together

    hip flexion
  18. prime movers of the hip

    • rectus femoris
    • iliopsoas


    • gluteus maximus
    • biceps femoris
    • semitendinous
    • semimembranosus


    • adductor longus
    • adductor brevus
    • adductor magnus
    • pectineus
    • gracilis


    • gluteus medius
    • gluteus minimus

    internal rotation

    gluteus minimus

    lateral rotation

    • -deep rotators(piriformis)
    • gemellus superior & inferior
    • obturator inturnus & externus
    • quadratus femoris
    • gluteus maximus
  19. muscles that make up the hamstrings
    • semimembranosus
    • semitendinosus
    • biceps femoris
  20. stabalizes the knee
    Tensor fascia latae
  21. iliotibial band (ITB) or tract
    long tendinous portion of the tensor fascia latae muscle

    • attaches:
    • anterior portion of the iliac crest
    • runs superficially down lateral side of thigh
    • ataches to tibia

    insertion for fibers of:

    • gluteus maximus
    • tensor fascia latae
  22. iliotibial band syndrome
    overuse injury causing lateral knee pain

    commonly seen in runners and bicyclists

    repeated friction of the band sliding over the lateral femoral epicondyle during knee motion
  23. reversal of muscle function
    when you stand on one leg

    distal segment (femur) becomes more stable than the proximal segment (os coxae)

    origin moves toward insertion

    without contracting-pelvis would drop on opposite side

    weakness Trendelenberg gait

    if weak right hip abductors, stand on right, left side drops

    in reversal of muscle function, the right hip abductors contract to keep the pelvis steady when the left leg is lifted

    when right hip abductors are weak, the left side of the pelvis drops
  24. summary of innervation
    • femoral nerve
    • ????

    obturator nerve
  25. landmarks for goniometer aligment
    • greater trochanter femur
    • lateral epicondyle femur
    • ASIS-anterior superior iliac sping
    • patella
    • crest of the tibia
  26. functional activities that involve the hip
    • sitting
    • walking
    • stair climbing
    • donning doffing shoes and socks
    • donning and doffing pants and undergarments
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