1a painting, drawing, or photograph of a person: a family portrait portrait ofthe artist's portrait of his motherShe's been commissioned topaintJackson'sportrait.
2 a description or representation of something portrait ofa portrait of working life in America
if a piece of paper, a page, a photograph etc is in a portrait position, it is placed on a surface or hung on a wall with its longer edges at the sides [≠ landscape]
1 something new or unusual
2 the quality or state of being novel : newness
3 a small manufactured article intended mainly for personal or household adornment —usually used in plural
4 something (as a song or food item) that provides often fleeting amusement and is often based on a theme —often used attributively.
1the entrance to a room or building, or the area of floor or ground at the entrance: ejm.
She opened the door and stepped across the threshold.
2 the level at which something starts to happen or have an effect: ejm.
Eighty percent of the vote was the threshold for approval of the plan. a high/low pain/boredom etc threshold (=the ability or inability to suffer a lot of pain or boredom before you react to it)
3 at the beginning of a new and important event or development be on the threshold of something.ejm.The creature is on the threshold of extinction.
1 premises [plural]the buildings and land that a shop, restaurant, company etc uses: Schools may earn extra money by renting out their premises.business premises off the premisesThe manager escorted him off the premises. on the premisesThe wonderful desserts are made on the premises.
2 [countable]also premiss British Englisha statement or idea that you accept as true and use as a base for developing other ideas: The idea that there is life on other planets is the central premise of the novel. premise thatthe premise that an accused person is innocent until they are proved guilty
Nounsyl‧lo‧gis‧m [countable]technicala statement with three parts, the first two of which prove that the third part is true, for example 'all men will die, Socrates is a man, therefore Socrates will die'
1a priest with a high rank in some Christian religions, who is the head of all the churches and priests in a large area: the Bishop of Durham
2a piece in the game ofchess that can be moved sideways over any number of squares of the same colour
1a poor farmer who owns or rents a small amount of land, either in past times or in poor countries: Most villagers are peasant farmers.
2old-fashionedinformalan insulting word for someone who does not behave politely in social situations or is not well-educated
dogged behaviour shows that you are very determined to continue doing something: adogged determinationto succeed
Nounthe principle or state of not having sex with anyone, or not with anyone except your husband or wife
1a) before a certain period of time has passed: We should have the test results back within 24 hours.He fell sick and died within a matter of weeks.Within an hour of our arrival Caroline was starting to complain.
b) during a certain period of time: the enormous success of televised sport within the last twenty yearsWithin the space of a year, three of the town's factories have closed down.
2less than a certain distance from a particular place: The invading troops came within 50 miles of Paris.Within a five mile radius of Ollerton there are several pubs and restaurants.We livewithin easy reach of (=close to)the shops.Adjust the driver's seat so that all the controls arewithin reach (=close enough to touch). within sight/earshot (of something) (=close enough to see or hear)As she came within sight of the house, she saw two men getting out of a car.
3inside a particular building or area [≠ outside]: Prisoners who died were buried within the walls of the prison.public footpaths within the national parkThe rooms within were richly furnished. apply/enquire within (=used on notices on the outside of buildings)Baby rabbits for sale. Enquire within.
4inside a society, organization, or group of people [≠ outside]: There have been a lot of changes within the department since I joined.an attempt to reform the systemfrom within
5if something stays within a particular limit or set of rules, it does not go beyond that limit: We have to operate within a very tight budget.Security firms have to work strictly within the law.You can go anywhere you wantwithin reason (=within reasonable limits).
6literaryorformalinside a person's body or mind [≠ outside]: Elaine felt a pain deep within her.I'm feeling more relaxed within myself.
Noun1the belief that animals or objects have the same feelings and qualities as humans
2technicalthe belief that God can appear in a human or animal form —anthropomorphicadjective
Noun1 [singular, uncountable]an opinion about whether a person, group, or idea is good or bad which influences how you deal with it political/gender/racial etc biaspolitical bias in the pressStudents were evaluated without bias. bias against/towards/in favour ofIt's clear that the company has a bias against women and minorities.
2 [singular]a natural skill or interest in one type of thing: Lydia has a strong artistic bias.3 on the biasAVin adiagonal direction
to unfairly influence attitudes, choices, or decisions: Several factors could have biased the results of the study.
1 not connected with or controlled by a church or other religious authority: secular educationour modern secular society
2a secular priest lives among ordinary people, rather than with other priests in amonastery
past participle of seek
Adj. de‧ri‧sive showing that you think someone or something is stupid or silly: derisive laughter
blot1 past tense and past participle blotted, present participle blotting [transitive]
1to make a wet surface become dry by pressing soft paper or cloth on it
2 blot your copy book British English informal to do something that spoils the idea that people have of you blot something ↔ out phrasal verb
1to cover or hide something completely: Thick white smoke blotted out the sun.
2 if you blot out an unpleasant memory, a thought etc, you deliberately try to forget it: She said she took drugs to blot out her problems.blot something ↔ up phrasal verbto remove liquid from a surface by pressing soft paper or cloth onto it
jeop‧ar‧dizealsojeopardise British English [transitive]to risk losing or spoiling something important: large-scale military offensives which could jeopardize the UN peace process
pan2 past tense and past participle panned, present participle panning
1criticize [transitive]informalATCto strongly criticize a film, play etc in a newspaper or on television or radio: The movie was panned by the critics.
2cameraa[intransitivealways+adverb/preposition]AMif a film or television camera pans in a particular direction, it moves in that direction and follows the thing that is being filmed: The camera panned slowly across the crowd.
b) [intransitive and transitive]AMto move a camera in this way
3gold [intransitive and transitive]to wash soil in a metal container in order to separate gold from other substances pan forpanning for gold in Alaska pan out phrasal verbto happen or develop in a particular way: We'll have to see how things pan out.
con‧sti‧tu‧ent (Noun) 1 [countable]1PPVsomeone who votes in a particular area
2one of the substances or things that combine to form something constituent ofSodium is one of the constituents of salt.
binge1 [countable]informalDFa short period when you do too much of something, such as eating or drinking: a drinking bingea week-long binge of shopping
on a bingeKen'sgone on a bingewith his mates.
de‧fault11 by defaulta) if you win a game, competition etc by default, you win it because your
opponent did not play or because there were no other competitorsb) if something happens by default, it happens because you did not do anything to change it
2 [uncountable and countable]formalfailure to pay money that you owe at the right time in defaultThe company is in default on its loan agreement. default inThe bank can seize the asset in the event of a default in payment.the risk of default by borrowers
3 [uncountable]lawfailure to do something that you are supposed to do according to the law or because it is your duty
4TD [countable usually singular]TDtechnicalthe way in which things are arranged on a computer screen unless you decide to change them: You can change thedefault settingsto suit your needs.
5 in default of somethingformalbecause of the lack or absence of something
default2 [intransitive]1to fail to pay money that you owe at the right time default onHe defaulted on his child support payments.
2to not do something that you are supposed to do, especially that you are legally supposed to do
brink1 the brink (of something)a situation when you are almost in a new situation, usually a bad one on the brink of death/disaster/war etcIn October 1962 the world seemed on the brink of nuclear war.The company had huge debts and was on the brink of collapse. to the brink (of something)managers who have taken their companies to the brink of disaster back from the brink (of something)He will go down in history as the leader who pulled us back from the brink (=saved us from disaster).
2 push/tip somebody over the brinkto make someone start doing crazy or extreme things
3 the brink of somethingliterarythe edge of a very high place such as a cliff
tether2 (verb) [transitive]TAto tie an animal to a post so that it can only move around within a limited area
flut‧ter11 [intransitive and transitive]HBIif a bird or insect flutters, or if it flutters its wings, it flies by moving its wings lightly up and down: A small bird fluttered past the window.
2 [intransitive]to make small gentle movements in the air: Dead leaves fluttered slowly to the ground.The flag fluttered in the light breeze.
3 [intransitive]if your heart or your stomach flutters, you feel very excited or nervous
4 [intransitive]if your eyelids flutter, they move slightly when you are asleep: Her eyelids fluttered but did not open.
5 flutter your eyelashes (at somebody)if a woman flutters her eyelashes at a man, she looks at him and moves her eyes to make herself attractive to him
dis‧close [transitive]formal1to make something publicly known, especially after it has been kept secret [= reveal]: Some companies have already voluntarilydisclosedsimilarinformation.Herefused to disclosethe identity of the politician. disclose thatIt was disclosed that £3.5 million was needed to modernize the building.
2to show something by removing the thing that covers it [= reveal]
spur2 past tense and past participle spurred, present participle spurring
1 [transitive]alsospur somebody onto encourage someone or make them want to do something: The band were spurred on by the success of their last two singles. spur somebody (on) to do somethingHis misfortunes spurred him to write. spur somebody (on) to somethingthe coach who spurred him on to Olympic successIt was an article in the local newspaper which finallyspurredhiminto action.
2 [transitive]to make an improvement or change happen faster [= encourage]: Lower taxes would spur investment and help economic growth.
3 [intransitive and transitive]DSHto encourage a horse to go faster, especially by pushing it with special points on the heels of your boots
crib2 past tense and past participle cribbed, present participle cribbing [intransitive and transitive]especially British EnglishSEto copy school or college work dishonestly from someone else crib something off/from somebodyHe didn't want anyone to crib the answers from him.
bash11 [intransitive always + adverb/preposition, transitive]to hit someone or something hard, in a way that causes pain or damage: Someone bashed him on the back of his head.Police bashed down the door to get in. bash something on/against somethingHe bashed his head on the back of the seat. bash intoI accidentally bashed into a woman pushing a pram.
2PP [transitive]to criticize someone or something very strongly: He was always bashing the trade unions. —-bashernoun [countable]union-bashersbash on phrasal verbto continue working in order to finish something: Well, I'd better bash on.
bash something ↔ out phrasal verb to produce something quickly or in great quantities but without much care or thought: I bashed out replies as fast as I could.
bash somebody ↔ up phrasal verbto seriously hurt someone by attacking them violently
lar‧gesse , largess [uncountable]formalwhen someone gives money or gifts to people who have less than they do, or the money or gifts that they give [= generosity]
dis‧own [transitive not in progressive]to
say that you no longer want to be connected with someone or something, especially a member of your family or something that you are responsible
for: Frankly, I'm not surprised her family disowned her.Since 1960, Kubrick has virtually disowned the film.
dis‧heart‧enedAdj, formaldisappointed, so that you lose hope and the determination to continue doing something: If young children don't see quick results they grow disheartened. —disheartenverb [transitive]
1to take hold of something suddenly and violently [= grab]: Suddenly he seized my hand. seize something from somebodyMaggie seized the letter from her.
2to take control of a place suddenly and quickly, using military force seize power/control (of something)The rebels have seized power.A group of soldiers seized the airport.
3if the police or government officers seize something, for example illegal drugs, they take legal possession of it: 160,000 CDs were seized from illegal factories.All of myassetswereseized, including my home.
4to suddenly catch someone and make sure they cannot get away: The gunmen were seized at 1 a.m.
5 seize a chance/an opportunity/the initiativeto quickly and eagerly do something when you have the chance to
6 be seized with/by terror/desire etcto suddenly be affected by an extremely strong feeling: When she saw his face, she was seized by fear.seize on/upon something phrasal verbto suddenly become very interested in an idea, excuse, what someone says etc: His every remark is seized upon by the press.seize up phrasal verba) if an engine or part of a machine seizes up, its moving parts stop working and can no longer move, for example because of lack of oil: The mechanism had seized up.b) if a part of your body, such as your back, seizes up, you suddenly cannot move it and it is very painful
vet2 past tense and past participle vetted, present participle vetting [transitive]
1British Englishto check someone's past activities, relationships etc in order to make
sure that person is suitable for a particular job, especially an important one: All candidates are carefully vetted by Central Office.
2to check a report, speech etc carefully to make sure it is acceptable: The author vets every script for the new TV series.
1ask [intransitive]to make a serious public request for help, money, information etc appeal forChurch and community leaders have appealed for calm. appeal toFarmers have appealed to the government for help. appeal to somebody to do somethingThe police have appealed to anyone with information to come forward and talk to them.
2ask to change decision [intransitive and transitive]to make a formal request to a court or someone in authority asking for a decision to be changed: She is not happy with the decision and plans to appeal. appeal againstBoth men intend to appeal against their convictions. appeal toAppealing to the referee does not often result in a decision being changed.
3be attractive [intransitive]if someone or something appeals to you, they seem attractive and interesting appeal toThe programme appeals to young children.The idea of working abroadreally appealsto me.
4 appeal to somebody's better nature/sense of justice etcto try to persuade someone to do something by reminding them that it is a good or fair thing to do: You could always try appealing to his better nature.
1 plural chairmen [countable]1someone, especially a man, who is in charge of a meeting or directs the work of a committee or an organization [↪ chairwoman] chairman ofPotts was appointed chairman of the education committee. deputy/vice chairmanBarrett serves as vice chairman.! Many people usechairpersonorchairinstead, to avoid suggesting that this person must be a man.
2British EnglishBOBBBsomeone who is in charge of a large company or organization: the chairman of British AerospaceWilliams has beenchairman of the boardfor five years.
1if similar things diverge, they develop in different ways and so are no longer similar: The two species diverged millions of years ago.Global growth rates are diverging markedly.
2if opinions, interests etc diverge, they are different from each other diverge fromHere his views diverged from hers.
3TTif two lines or paths diverge, they separate and go in different directions [≠ converge] —divergencenoun [uncountable and countable]divergence between the US and Europe —divergentadjective: divergent views
that is used to persuade or influence people, especially language that sounds impressive but is not actually sincere or useful: The speech was dismissed by some people as merelypolitical rhetoric. rhetoric ofthe rhetoric of socialism
2the art of speaking or writing to persuade or influence people
1very plain in appearance, with little or no colour or decoration: In the cold dawn light, the castle looked stark and forbidding.the stark beauty of New Mexico
2unpleasantly clear and impossible to avoid [= harsh]: The movie shows the stark realities of life in the ghetto.The extreme poverty of the local people is instark contrastto the wealth of the tourists.We are faced with a stark choice.a stark reminder of life under communist rule —starklyadverb
1 be fond of somebodyto like someone very much, especially when you have known them for a long time and almost feel love for them: Joe's quite fond of her, isn't he?Over the years we'vegrownveryfond ofeach other.
2 be fond of (doing) somethingto like something, especially something you have liked for a long time: I'm not overly fond of cooking.I'dgrown fond ofthe place and it was difficult to leave.
3 be fond of doing somethingto do something often, especially something that annoys other people: My grandfather was very fond of handing out advice to all my friends.
4 [only before noun]a fond look, smile, action etc shows you like someone very much [= affectionate]: He gave her a fond look.As we parted we said afond farewell.
5 have fond memories of something/somebodyto remember someone or something with great pleasure: Marie still had fond memories of their time together.6 a fond hope/beliefa belief or hope that something will happen, which seems silly because it is very unlikely to happen in the fond hope/belief thatThey sent him to another school in the fond hope that his behaviour would improve.
2AVsomeone who sits or stands while someone else paints them or takes photographs of them
meansS2W2 plural means1method [countable]a way of doing or achievingsomething COLLOCATIONS COLLOCATIONS means of transport (=a way of travelling, for example using a car, bus, bicycle etc) means of communication means of escape means of identification (=an official document that shows who you are) means of expression (=a way of expressing your feelings, opinions etc) a means of doing something have no means of doing something use any means (=use any method, even if it is illegal or causes harm to other people) by unlawful/illegal/unfair means (whether) by fair means or foul (=using unfair methods if necessary) means ofFor most people, the car is still their mainmeans of transport.The only means of communication was sign language.The window was our only means of escape.Do you have any means of identification?art as a means of expressionHomework should not be used asa means ofcontrolling children.I had no means of telling him I would be late.Brian was prepared to use any means to get what he wanted.They had entered the countryby unlawful means.the means by which performance is assessed
2money [plural]BEWthe money or income that you have have the means to do somethingI don't have the means to support a family.Paying for your children to go to a private school isbeyond the means ofmost people (=too expensive for most people).Try to livewithinyourmeans (=only spending what you can afford).His father was aman of means (=a rich man).
3 by all means!spokenused to mean 'of course' when politely allowing someone to do something or agreeing with a suggestion: 'Can I bring Alan?' 'By all means!'
4 by no means/not by any meansnot at all: It is by no means certain that the game will take place.She's not a bad kid, by any means.
5 by means of somethingformalusing a particular method or system: The blocks are raised by means of pulleys.
6 a means to an endsomething that you do only to achieve a result, not because you want to do it or because it is important: For Geoff, the job was simply a means to an end.
7 the means of productionTIPEthe material, tools, and equipment that are used in the production of goods ➔ ways and means at way1 (1)
Chinese way of thought which teaches that you should be loyal to your
family, friends, and rulers and treat others as you would like to be
treated. Confucianism was developed from the ideas of Confucius. —Confucianadjective
bind‧ing1 a binding contract/promise/agreement etcSCLa promise, agreement etc that must be obeyed
max‧im [countable]a well-known phrase or saying, especially one that gives a rule for sensible behaviour
in‧junc‧tion [countable]1lawSCLan order given by a court which tells someone not to do something injunction againstThe family isseekinganinjunctionagainst the book's publication.The judge refused tograntaninjunction.They failed toobtainaninjunction.
2formala piece of advice or an order from someone in authority
Date: 1500-1600 Origin: empiric 'person who puts trust only in practical experience' (16-21 centuries), from Latin empiricus, from Greek empeiria 'experience' empiricaladjective
em‧pir‧i‧cal [only before noun]based on scientific testing or practical experience, not on ideas [≠ theoretical, hypothetical]: empirical evidence —empiricallyadverb
bind1 past tense and past participle bound1tie/fasten [transitive]writtena) to tie someone so that they cannot move or escape: They bound my arms and legs with rope. bound and gagged (=tied up, and with cloth tied around your mouth so you cannot speak)b) alsobind upto tie things firmly together with cloth or string: The pile of newspapers was bound with string.
2form a connection [transitive]to form a strong emotional or economic connection between two people, countries etc [= unite] bind somebody/something togetherTheir shared experiences in war helped to bind the two communities together.
3make somebody do something [transitive usually passive]if you are bound by an agreement, promise etc, you must do what you have agreed to do or promised to do: The monks are bound by vows of silence. bind somebody to do somethingEmployees are not bound to give their reasons for leaving.4stick together [intransitive and transitive]technicalto stick together in a mass, or to make small pieces of something stick together: The flour mixture isn't wet enough to bind properly. bind withThe hydrogen molecule binds with the oxygen molecule.
5book [transitive]TCNto fasten the pages of a book together and put them in a cover ➔bound2 (9)6stitch [transitive]TIMDto sew cloth over the edge of a piece of material, or stitch over it, to strengthen it: The edges of the blanket were bound with ribbon.bind somebody over phrasal verbSCLa) British Englishif someone is bound over by a court of law, they are warned that if they cause more trouble, they will be legally punished: The demonstrators were bound over to keep the peace.b) American Englishif someone is bound over fortrial, they are forced by law to appear in a court
mere‧lyS2W21used to emphasize how small or unimportant something or someone is [= only]: He's merely a boy - you can't expect him to understand.
2used to emphasize that nothing more than what you say is involved [= just]: We're merely good friends.He merely shrugged and walked away.
3 not merely/rather than merelyused before the less important of two ideas in a sentence to emphasize the more important idea: It's not merely a matter of cost, but whether she's old enough to go on holiday alone.It's important to write these goals down, rather than merely think about them.
Sociobiology is a field of scientific study which is based on the assumption that social behavior has resulted from evolution and attempts to explain and examine social behavior within that context.
1. excessive indulgence in sensual pleasures; intemperance.
2. Archaic . seduction from duty, allegiance, or virtue.
an inalienable right, power etc cannot be taken from you: inalienable human rights