a prewriting technique in which the writer uses free association to create a list of whatever words, phrases, or ideas come to mind on a given topic. It can be done alone or in a group.
a prewriting technique that emphasizes the connections among items on a brainstorming list. The topic is written in the middle of the page and has a circle drawn around it. As details or ideas are generated, they are circled and then lines are drawn to connect them to related details or ideas. This process continues until the topic has been fully explored. Variations of clustering are webbing, branching, and mapping.
a prewriting technique in which the writer explores a topic by writing for a predetermined amount of time without stopping, even if it means repeating the same ideas.
the written record of a person’s observations, thoughts, reactions, or opinions. Kept daily, or nearly so, the journal usually draws on everyday experiences.
the most formal method of organizing prewriting ideas. The format uses numerals and letters to distinguish between major points and supporting details of a planned piece of writing.
the use of one’s own words to restate each idea of another person’s work.
a collection of materials representing a person’s best work and intended to help in the evaluation of that work, often for a grade in a course. A writer may also include materials to use in future work.
the earliest stage of the writing process, which uses techniques such as brainstorming, clustering, and outlining to transform thoughts into words.
the use of one’s own words to provide a condensed restatement of the main ideas of another person’s work.