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offers a broad, fundamental explanationof many observations
simple empirical statement thatsummarizes things as they are
what is environmental scienece?
- • Extremely broad discipline that tries to explain:
- – How life on earth is sustained
- – What leads to environmental problems
- – How can those problems be solved
environmental problems exists because of
- -human population size
- -rate of resource consumption
Total impact =
impact/person x number of people
For a given concentration of greenhouse gasses,the amount of heat trapped can be calculatedprecisely.
Climate changes naturally because offorcings related to:
- 1. Variation in sunlight
- 2. Shifts in ocean circulation
- 3. Changes in geology and biology
Geologic & Biological shifts: Natural Climate Variability
- • Meteors• Life----Rise of oxygen
- • Shifts in the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere.
- • Variations in volcanic activity(aerosols)
Two major forces move the air around:
- 1.Heat from the sun
- 2.the coriolis force
- Positive feedbacks enhance the warming.
- – E.g., melting large swaths of ice reduces theearth’s albedo, which is a positive feedback.
- Negative feedbacks reduce the warming.
- – E.g., higher CO2 can enhance plant growthunder some conditions, which holds CO2 down.
- Move water from wet to dry areas
- -downstream flooding
save water during wet periods to use during dry periods
San Joaquin - Bay Delta Levee System
controls 70% of annual runoff in California
Changes in precipitation distrubution
Less in low latitudes and more in higher latitudes
Spring runoff will occur nearly_______early…
Structure of the Atmosphere
Deviation from the normal change of an atmospheric property withaltitude. It almost always refers to a temperature inversion, (i.e. an increase intemperature with height)
- 1.After sunset, the earth's surface cools and radiates less energy, and the air closest to the surface cools before air higher up
- 2. Air near surface cooler and denser than air above it
- Most common on winter mornings
Cold air from surrounding mountain descents into valley while infrared radiation from the surface heats the layer above
Cool marine air undercuts warm air over land
- Flow of air from a high plateau descends andwarms by compression, creating a cap above acooler air mass in a basin below the highlands,resulting in a capping inversion
- -Santa Ana!
An inversion can develop aloft as a result ofair gradually sinking over a wide area andbeing warmed by adiabatic compression,
Particles that are heavier than air are removed
Sulfuric and nitric acids are dissolved by rain and removed---acid rain
Most of the gas phase pollution we put in the atmosphere gets reacted or oxidized
- 1. Particulate Matter
- 2. Carbon Monoxide
- 3. Sulfur dioxide
- 4. Nitrogen Dioxide
- Anything that forms in the atmosphere from chemical transformations of the primary pollutants
- Ex. Ozone, particulate matter
- -Los Angeles
- -O3 particulates
- -Carbon Monoxide, Particulates, Sulfur Dioxide
Sulfuric and nitric acid
- 1.Carbon monoxide
- 2. Lead
- 3. Oxides of nitrogen
- 4. Ozone
- 5. Sulfur dioxide
- 6. Particulate Matter
Key Ingredients that make Photochemical Air Pollution
- 1. Nitrogen Oxide/VOCs/Carbon monoxide/Particulates
- 2. Sunlight
- 3. Poor atmospheric mixing
In the stratosphere, ozone shields us from the Sun's deadly ultraviolet radiation
- In the troposphere
- -Impairs lung capacity and reduces agricultural productivity
Relevant pollutants for which there are no existing regulations
- 1. Ultrafine particles
- 2. Black Carbon
Where Particles deposit depends on their size
- Ultrafine: along sensory neurons to circulatory system
- Fine: penetrate into Alveoli, body cannot remove them
- Coarse: deposit in upper airways, removed by cilia, but cause asthma
Santa Monica: Summer is Cleaner; Why?
Summer is cleaner because there is less traffic during the pre-sunrise period
Ozone in the______causes warming
Largest use of CFCs
- 1. Aerosol cans
- 2. Refrigeration/air conditioning
- 3. Semiconductor manuafacturing
- 4. Foam manufacturing
CFC's absorb at wavelengths
Destruction of CFCs
only in stratosphere
1 Dobson Unit
Stratospheric ozone most at
- Mid Latitudes: 350 DU
- Equator: 250 DU
What can destroy Stratospheric Ozone?
- 1. Chlorine
- 2. Bromine
- 3. Nitrogen Oxides
How much Ozone gets destroyed?
Ozone Destruction at the Poles
- -5% destruction
Ozone Destruction at the Poles
2. Polar regions
- – Massive O3 hole duringspring time
- – Very dark
- – Very cold
- – PSCs form
- – Chemical reactions
- - Free chlorine----massive O3destruction
California Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS)
Policy requiring 20% ofelectricity generation tobe renewables by 2010,and may be increased to33% by 2017.
California's current renewbale energy percentage
Photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency
Top 3 Countries with installed Solar Photovoltaics
- 1. Germany 47%
- 2. Spain 16%
- 3. Japan 13%
generation sources respond on-demand to user needs
respond to many conditions in supply and demand in aintelligent way
Hydrogen is a _____ fuel
- synthetic (gas/liquid)
- -requires energy to make it
- -not an energy source
Using electricity to separate hydrogen(H2) from water (H2O).
Burning natural gas in low levels of oxygen to produce CO/CO2 and H2.
What is conservation biology
- The study of:
- • biodiversity
- • threatened and endangered species
- • ecological and evolutionary processesthat underlie preservation
if it is good because it provides the means for acquiring something else of value.
Ex. Having a net worth of a million dollars is an instrumental value. Having those assets is good only to the extent that you can use them to get something else--like happiness.
- if it is good ``in and of itself,'' i.e., not merely as a means for acquiring something
- Ex. Happiness might be an example of an intrinsic value, because beinghappy is good just because it's good to be happy, not because being happy leads to anything else.
Factors that affect climate
- 1. intensity of sunlight
- 2. albedo: shortwave(solar radiation)
- 3. Greenhouse effect: Longwave(thermal radiation)
the most important greenhouse gas
climate changes naturally because
- 1. variation in sunlight
- 2. Changes in geology and biology
- 3. Shifts in ocean and atmospheric circulation
Most dangerous wavelength
Ozone forms naturally in the stratosphere
most imprtant to destroy ozone
sea water seep down into the rock, come close to hot magma, turn into steam, and blow up the volcano
permanently frozen zone, soil doesnt completely thaw
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