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  1. E. B. Titchener
    • Qualitative
    • Introspection (stomach
    • tube); founder of Structuralism;
    • mental elements (contents); Experiences; music; coin collector;
    • cigars; The Experimentalists;
    • Association
    • Describe elements of state not the stimulus
    • interpretation vs. observation;
    • stimulus error: (apple vs. color, shape, etc.; i.e., conscious content)--44,000 sensations
    • Saw humans as machines
    • consciousness: the sum of experiences at a given time
    • mind: the sum of experiences over
    • a lifetime
    • subjects = "reagents"; like mechanical
    • recording instruments
    • 50 phds
    • Group-Tichener's Experimentalists
    • Taught at Cornell-no women allowed
    • Psych is the study of consciousness
  2. States of consciousness
    • Sensation: basic elements of perception
    • (sounds, sights, smells, etc.)
    • Images: elements of ideas; not actually present
    • (e.g., memories)
    • Affect: elements of emotion
  3. Mental Elem. Categories
    • Wundt: quality, intensity
    • Titchener: added duration and clearness, quantity
  4. Christine Ladd-Frankin
    "no women allowed" experimentalists
  5. Margaret Floy Washburn
    Comparative psychology "the animal mind"
  6. Introspection
    • Self observation
    • describe elements of the conscious state
  7. Kulpe
    • The term systematic experimental introspection
    • Imageless thought
  8. Structuralism
    • Analyze consciousness into its component parts to determine its structure.
    • Parts (atoms of the mind)
  9. Wundt
    • Structuralism
    • Introspection
    • Apperception: (voluntary) synthesis and organization of higher order cognitive processes, elements
    • The whole
    • Faculties
    • Like Gall
    • Descriptive and taxonomic
    • Static
    • First experimental lab
    • Volunteerism: power of mind to organize content
    • QUANTITATIVE
  10. Jenny
    An orangutan Darwin observed at the zoo
  11. Functionalism
    How the mind functions and how it is used to adapt to its environment (as opposed to structuralism)
  12. Erastmus Darwin
    • Charles Darwin's grandfather
    • "All animals had evolved set in motion by God"
  13. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
    • Inheritance of acquired characteristics
    • Modification to bodily form as adaptation to environment
  14. Charles Lyell
    • Book: Principles of Geology
    • Influenced Darwin, was influenced by Malthus
    • Geological evolution, earth has passed through many stages
  15. Amerigo Vespucci
    • Multitude of wild animals
    • Noah's Arc
  16. John Stevens Henslow
    • Darwin's botany professor
    • Secured his position on the HMS Beagle trip
  17. Robert Fitzroy
    • Captain of the HMS Beagle
    • Darwin's big nose
    • Weather forecasts
  18. Charles Darwin
    • Collector
    • Bad in school
    • "The Devil's Chaplain"
    • Natural selection
    • Offspring show variation from parents and each other
    • Theory of emotion-humans differ from animals only in degree, emotion a result of threat, danger
    • mom died when 8
    • raised by 2 older sisters
    • Found med school boring
    • collected plants and shells
    • Anglican Priest school in Cambridge--did believe in the bible
    • Drank, ate, member of gourmet club
    • Entomology, field research
    • Expression of emotions are culturally universal
    • Humans differ from animals only in degree
  19. Alfred Russel Wallace
    • Similar theory of evolution to Darwin
    • Did not believe in social darwinism--people should be helped by government
  20. The Linnaean Society
    Meeting where Darwin and Wallace's work was presented
  21. Thomas Malthus
    • Food supply increases arithmetically, population increases geometrically
    • Essay: "The principle of population"
    • Melancholy Hue
  22. Thomas Henry Huxley
    An agent for the propagation of the gospel of evolution
  23. B. Samuel Wilberforce
    • Defended the bible
    • "Soapy Sam" (long speeches)
  24. Peter and Rosemary Grant
    • Finches' Beak length
    • Evolution may occur more rapidly than Darwin expected
    • The missing link--fish with limbs
  25. Francis Galton
    • Individual differences
    • IQ 200
    • Mental inheritance
    • Viewed IQ as: Sensory acuity--inherited
    • Anthropometry
    • Book: "The Englishmen of Science"
    • Questionnaire: was your interest inherited?
    • Mental imagery
    • word associations
    • Fingerprints
    • Fashion
    • Geographic distribution of beauty
    • Effects of prayer
    • Invented printer
    • Periscope
    • Device to pick locks
    • Book "The Art of Travel"
    • Weather map, weather patterns
    • "hereditary genius" book
    • Eugenics, inheritance
    • Mean, SD, discovered correlation, regression to the mean
    • Originated Association of ideas, word association test, reaction time
    • OCPD
  26. Juan Huarte
    • Individual differences in ability and attitude
    • Book "the examination of talented individuals"
    • Planned education in accordance with abilities
  27. Adolph Quetelet
    First to use statistical methods and normal curve with social data
  28. Karl Pearson
    • Galton's student
    • Correlation coeff
  29. James McKeen Cattell
    • "mental tests"
    • Human abilities
    • Directly measuring intelligence components
    • Experimentation with recreational drugs
    • reaction time
    • order of merit ranking
    • emphasis on statistics
    • sterilize the defects
    • incentives for healthy intermarriage
    • mental tests
    • IQ largely inherited but envi could have an effect
    • "history of psych would be as short as a book on snakes..."
  30. George John Romaines
  31. Formalized and systematized the study of "animal intelligence"
    • "The mental ladder" (by degree of mental functioning)
    • Anecdotal method
    • Introspection by analogy
  32. C. Lloyd Morgan
    • Among the earliest bicyclists
    • Law of parsimony: animal intelligence can be explained by lower mental processes
  33. Herbert Spencer
    • Principle of contiguity like Guthrie, but Contiguity not enough, need Bain's principle
    • Bain's Principle: Behavior followed by success is likely to be repeated (Then thorndike, skinner): evolutionary associationism
    • Our philosopher
    • Extended darwinism
    • Coined "survival of the fittest"
    • Social Darwinism
    • Synthetic philosophy: knowledge can be explained in terms of evolutionary principles
    • Adaptive nature of nervous system and mental processes
    • Increasing complexity of experience is critical
    • Student of Lamarck
  34. James Hill
    • Railroad tycoon
    • Survival of the fittest philosophy
  35. John D. Rockefeller
    • Oil tycoon
    • American industrialist
    • Survival of the fittest philosophy
  36. Fred. Jackson Turner
    • American Historian
    • "...That dominant individualism"
  37. Henry Ward Beecher
    • "The peculiar condition of american society"
    • Enhanced Spencer's writings
  38. Samuel Butler
    • Mechanical Evolution
    • Obsolete machines disappear
  39. Henry Hollerith
    • Punched cards
    • Tabulating
    • US Census
    • IBM
  40. William James
    • Mystical events
    • Functionalist
    • Not an associationist
    • Free will
    • Altered consciousness: nitrous oxide and amyl nitrite
    • Book: the principles of psychology
    • Educational psych
    • Consciousness facilitates evolution through choice-complex beings in complex settings
    • stressed the nonrational
    • Stream of consciousness: continuous (opposed Wundt and Titchener)--you can't break this down, it reflects the person
    • Etiomotoraction?
    • James-Lang theory of emotions: stimulus-response-emotion
    • Self-esteem: success/pretentions
    • Pragmatism: if an idea works it has value
    • bundles of habits
    • three piece self: material social and spiritual
  41. George Beard
    • American neurologist
    • Epidemic of neurasthenia
    • "Americanitis"
  42. Charles Renouvier
    Essays of Freedom of the Will
  43. Mary Whiton Calkins
    • Paired Associates Technique (memory)
    • Gender discrimination
    • variability hypothesis: women's tendency toward averageness
  44. Leta Stetter Hollingsworth
    • Researched the variability hypothesis
    • Refuted ideas on the menstrual cycle
    • Challenged innated instinct for motherhood
    • Gifted children
    • Dissertation
  45. Granville Stanley Hall
    • First...you name it
    • Child studies and educational psych
    • APA
    • Educational theory
    • Book: "adolescence..."
    • Recapitulation theory: psych development repeats the history of human evolution
    • Senescence: issues of old age
  46. Francis Cecil Sumner
    First African American to earn a PhD in psychology
  47. John Dewey
    • Attacked reflex arc concept
    • more of a circle than arc
  48. James Rowland Angell
    • NBC "Sunny Jim"
    • Never earned degree but got 23 honorary degrees
    • "The province of functional psychology"
    • Themes of function. Movement: mental operations (not elements), utilities of consciousness, psychophysical mind-body relations
    • No distinction between mind and body
    • chicago school--functionalism
  49. Harvey A. Carr
    • Mental activity
    • Adaptive or adjustive
    • Objectivity
    • Research on animals and humans
    • Bridge between structural psychology and behavioristm
    • Move toward behaviorism
  50. Robert S. Woodworth
    • Dynamic psychology
    • S-O-R
    • Emphasized motivation
    • Personal data sheet: self report inventory used by army
  51. C. A. Ruckmick
    • Criticized definition of "function"
    • Must demonstrate utility, "cure society's ills"
  52. Harry Hollingsworth
    • Coca Cola caffeine study
    • Professional integrity
    • Applied psychology
  53. John Edgar Cover
    First to advocate use of Experimental and Control Groups
  54. Alfred Binet
    • First truly psychological test of mental ability
    • Mental Age
    • Mental Orthopoedics
    • IQ flexible
    • Complex mental operations
  55. Theodore Simon
    • Worked with Binet
    • Interested in what mentally retarded individuals were different
    • Binet-Simon measuring scale for intelligence
  56. Henry Goddard
    • Introduced term Moron
    • Kallikak family = good and bad (genetically determined like GALTON)
    • Translated Binet-Simon to English
    • Ellis Island Testing
    • Racial differences in IQ, immigration policy
  57. Lewis Terman
    • Stanford-Binet revision
    • Adopted concept of IQ (Mental age/chronological age)
    • Early ripe early rot
    • Longit study 1921-1986
    • Significant research: created norms
  58. Robert Yerkes
    • How can psych aid the war effort?
    • Group IQ testing
    • Army alph and betas
    • Primates
    • Father of Comparative psych
    • Strong advocate of eugenics
    • Points on IQ test instead of mental age
  59. Arthur S. Otis
    Multiple choice style
  60. Thomas Edison
    Contributed to public loss of faith in testing
  61. Horace Mann Bond
    • Vocal critic of racial differences in intelligence
    • Environmental factors
    • Compared blacks from northern and southern states
  62. Hernstein and Murray
    • Book "The bell curve"
    • Race and IQ
    • Avoidance Theory
  63. Florence Goodenough
    The "Draw a man" test
  64. Maude A. M. James
    Revised Stanford-Binet with Terman
  65. Thelma Gwen Thurstone
    the "primary mental abilities" test battery
  66. Psyche Cattell
    Extended age range of Stanford Binet with the Cattell Infant Intell. Scale
  67. Anne Anastasi
    Choice between work and children
  68. Lightner Witmer
    • Coined clinical psychology
    • First psychological clinic
    • more assessment
  69. Clifford Beers
    • Former mental patient
    • Book: "a mind that found itself"
    • Humane care
  70. Hugo Munsterberg
    • Wrote "psychotherapy" a book listing specific interventions
    • Assused of being a spy
    • Professor monster-work
    • anti-prohibition
    • eye-witness testimony
    • forensic psyc
    • suppression of troubling ideas
    • designed chronoscope to measure worker efficiency
  71. William Heally
    • First child guidance clinic
    • Preventive care
  72. Walter Dill Scott
    • Personnel selection
    • Management
    • Advertising
    • Psyc consulting
    • Sense organs as windows of the soul
    • Suggestibility and influence
    • Coupons
    • Group testing format
  73. Hawthorne Studies
    • Human relations
    • Motivation
    • Morale
    • Social conditions of workplace
  74. Lillian M. Gilbreth
    • Time-and-motion analysis
    • Efficiency in job performance
  75. Anna Berliner
    • Nerspaper advertising
    • Visual problems that affect learning
  76. Grace Adams
    The decline of psychology in America
  77. Notes say Malthus =
    psychosomatic problems
  78. Why Greeks = evolution?
    • Maritime country, saw changes over time. Good record keepers.
    • Aristotle, though throught species were fixed in their forms. Plato too.
  79. Charcot
    • Worked with Binet
    • Two careers: magnetism and iq, individual differences
    • studied daughters, memory, testimony, creativity, perception, rorschach.
    • Father of experimental psychology in france
  80. Charles Spearman
    • Studied with Wundt and Kupe in Germany
    • Investigated IQ
    • Laid groundwork for factor analysis
    • G = general intelligence
    • s = specific factors
    • IQ is unitary
    • IQ is largely inherited
  81. Cyril Burt
    • Fraud
    • MZ twin studies to support idea that IQ is inherited
    • Leon Kamin contacted supposed participants and revealed Burt as a fraud
  82. William Stern
    Mental Age formula for IQ
  83. Functionalism
    • Influenced by Darwin
    • Opposition to Wundt
    • Operations in environment. Functional utility of behavior
  84. Structuralism
    Pure scientist, abstraction
  85. John B. Watson
    • Study of psychology is the study of behavior
    • Private events cannot be made public
    • 1914 Book
    • Objective, quantify
    • Opposed to cognitive influences
  86. Logical Positivism
    • All knowledge derived from empirical observation
    • Theory must involve meaningful statements
    • verifiable
    • connected to empirical observation
    • constructs abstracted relat
    • operationally defined
  87. Gustav Bergman
    • Vienna Circle
    • Bergman's Laws: Define all constructs in an operational form, does operation have functional utility
  88. Sahakian's Four stages of early US psychology development
    • moral and mental
    • intellectual philosophy
    • us renaissance
    • us functionalism
  89. Keller's delineation of themes of functionalism
    • opposed sterile research
    • understand function of the mind
    • desire practical science not pure science
    • urge broadening of subject
    • why mental processes and behavior
    • accept mental processes and behavior
    • what makes organisms different
    • influenced by william james and darwin's theories
  90. Gestalt school
    • Whole is greater than the sum of the parts
    • Max Wertheimer
    • Kurt Koffka-book "the growth of the mind"
    • Wolfgang Kohler-studied physics, studied behavior of chimpanzees
  91. Andrew Carnegie
    Steel tycoon who praised Spencer
  92. Helen BT Wooley
    • Sex differences in emotion and intelligence
    • Women not biologically inferior
  93. Jacques Loeb
    • tropism: involuntary forced movement, reaction to stimulus is automatic
    • theory of animal behavior
    • associative memory
  94. Willard S. Small
    Introduced the rat maze
  95. Edward Lee Thorndike
    • Overt behavior
    • s-r
    • Connectionism: learning is connecting s-r
    • bond
    • Puzzle box
    • Trial and error learning
    • Law of effect: acts that produce satisfaction become associated with that situation
    • Law of exercise: law of use and disuse
    • generalization
  96. Ivan Petrivitch Pavlov
    • conditioned reflexes
    • psychic reflexes
    • reinforcement
    • irradiation
    • engrams
    • induction
    • cortical excitation irratiation
    • neurosis is conflict between excit. and inhib
  97. E.B. Twitmyer
    knee-jerk reflex
  98. Bechterev
    associated reflexes

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