American Goverment ch 1

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  1. Politics
    • struggle over power within organizations or informal groups that can grant or withhold benifits or privileges
    • harold lasswell- "who get what, when and how"
  2. Why is Government necessary?
    • Security
    • liberty
    • authority
    • legitimacy
  3. securiy
    order; state of peace
  4. Liberty
    greatest freedom of individuals. consistant with the freedom of other individuals in society
  5. Authority
    the right and power of a government or other entity to enforce its decisions and compel obedience
  6. Legitimacy
    popular acceptance of the right and power of a government or other entity to exercise authority.
  7. Types of Government
    • Totalitarian Regime
    • Authoritarianism
    • Aristocracy
    • Democracy
  8. Totalitrain
    a small group or an individual controls all aspects of the political and social life of a nation.
  9. Authoritarian
    only the government itself is fully controlled by the ruler. Social and economic institutions exist that are not under the government’s control.
  10. Aristocracy
    the rule by the “best”; in reality, rule by an upper class. Ancient Greeks used the term oligarchy for rule by the few.
  11. democracy
    political authority is vested in the people. Derived from the Greek words demos (the people) and kratos (authority).
  12. Direct Democracy
    which political decisions are made by the people directly, rather than by their elected representatives; probably attained most easily in small political communities.
  13. initiative
    voters can propose a law or a constitutional amendment
  14. Referendum
    an electoral device whereby legislative or constitutional measures are referred by the legislature to the voters for approval or disapproval
  15. Recall
    a procedure allowing the people to vote to dismiss an elected official from state office before his or her term has expired.
  16. Democratic republic/ representative democracy
    government based on elected representatives
  17. What is the defferance between direct democracy and democratic republic?
    in a direct democracy decisions are made directly by the people while a a democratic republic a representive elected by the people enforce laws and policies.
  18. why is the united states a democratic republic?
    the aremican founders belived most citizens were not educated enough and too easily swayed by emotion to make decisions.
  19. what is universal suffrage?
    the right of all adults to vote for their representitives
  20. what does majority rule mean?
    the greatest number of cititzens in any political unit should select officals and determine policies.
  21. limited government?
    the powers of the government should be limited. usually by institutional checks.
  22. majoritarianism
    a political theory stating that in a democracy,the government should do what the majority of the people whant
  23. Elite theory
    a perspective stating that society is ruled by a small number of people who exercise power to further their self interest.
  24. pluraism
    a theory that views politics as a conflict among interest groups.political decision making is characterized by barganing and compromise
  25. Ideology
    the comprehensive set of beliefs about the nature of people and about the role of an institution or government
  26. liberalism
    • set of beliefs that includes the advocacy of positive government action to improve the welfare of individuals
    • support for civil rights
    • and tolenance for political and social change
  27. conservatism
    • a set of beliefs that includes a limited role for the national government in helping individuals
    • support for traditional values and lifestyles,
    • and cautious response to change
  28. what's the differance between Libertarianism conservatism & liberalism
    • lebertarianism is aganist all government activity
    • conservatism believes that the goverment's role should be limited
    • liberalism- supports govenment
  29. what are the current demographic trends? how will it impact the policical system?
    The proportion of Americans who are elderly is growing even as our fertility rate is leveling-off.
  30. what are the cultrual values that support american republic?
    • liberty
    • order
    • equality
    • property
  31. Describe the trade-off between order and liberty, and between equality and liberty.
    The value of order often competes with civil liberties and economic equality competes with property rights.
  32. what are the challenges the U.S. system posed by globalization and environmental change?
    • no single government can regulate global corporations
    • reducing jobs in one nation incressing jobs in another
    • little control over quality and consomer safety
    • global warming
    • pollution
  33. government
    institution in which decisions are made to resolve conflict or allocate benifits of pevilleges
  34. institution
    is an ongoing organization that performs certain functions for society.
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American Goverment ch 1
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