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This can be done immediately with mastectomy or after mastectomy scar has healed to improve self-image and sense of normalcy. Lactation, nipple sensation, or erectility cannot be restored.
Breast reconstruction can be done immediately with mastectomy or after mastectomy scar has healed to improve self-image and sense of normalcy. What can not be restored (3)
What are breast implants?
They are silicon envelopes filled with fluid that are placed in a pocket under the pectoralis muscle.
In breast reconstruction how does tissue expansion work.
If the patient has insufficient tissue an expander can be placed and gradually filled to allow gradual tissue expansion before the actual implant is placed.
How does the musculocutaneous flap procedure work in breast reconstruction?
If insufficient muscle tissue is left after mastectomy, musculocutaneous flaps can be taken from the back or abdomen to help rebuild the chest wall. This is know as what?
What is the most commonly used musculocutaneous flap procedure?
The most commonly used musculocutaneous flap procedure is the (TRAM) transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous.
Nipple/areolar reconstruction is usually done how long after breast reconstruction?
Nipple/areolar reconstruction is usually done a few months after ______ ______.
What can be used to reconstruct the nipple?
The _____ can be reconstructed using grafted tissue from opposite breast or small flap of tissue on the reconstructed breast mound.
The areola can be grafted from what?
The _____ can be grafted from the labia, skin in the area of the groin, or lower abdominal skin. Coloration can be tattooed on.
____% of cervical cancer cases are in underdeveloped countries.
80% of _____ cancer cases are in underdeveloped countries.
What are the risk factors for cervical cancer. (6)
- 1) Low socioeconomic status
- 2) Early sexual activity < age 17
- 3) Multiple sexual partners
- 4) Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV)
- 5) Immunosuppression
- 6) Smoking
These are all risk factors for what kind of cancer.
There is a
There is a strong relationship between _____ cancer and HPV.
The clinical manifestations of cervical cancer are. (3)
- 1) Usually asymptomatic
- 2) Bleeding, abnormal discharge as disease progresses
- 3) Pain, weight loss, cachexia are late symptoms
These are clinical manifestations of ______ cancer.
When should a female get a pap test? (3)
- 1) Beginning 3 years after first sexual intercourse
- 2) No later than age 21
- 3) Then yearly
This is how often a female should get a ____ test.
When is a pap test not needed?
No need for screening if uterus and cervix have been removed unless surgery was done for cancer or precancer.
Besides a colposcopy/biolpsy being done when an abnormal pap test is found, what other biopsies should be done. (4)
- 1) Punch biopsy
- 2) Conization (cone-shaped section of the cervix removed)
- 3) Cryotherapy (freezing of abnormal tissue)
- 4) Loop electrosurgery excision procedure (LEEP)
These biopsies should be done when you have and abnormal _____ test.
Name the treatments for invasive cervical cancer. (4)
- 1) Hysterectomy (removal of the uterus)
- 2) Radical hysterectomy (removal of uterus and adjacent structures)
- 3) External or internal radiation or combination of both
- 4) Cisplatin-based chemotherapy regimens if metastasis
These are treatments for?
What is the most common kind of gynocologic malignancy?
Endometrial cancer is the most common kind of ______ ______.
What is the major risk factor for endometrial cancer?
Estrogen is the major risk factor for ____ cancer.
What are the clinical manifestations of endometrial cancer.
Abnormal uterine bleeding and pain in the advanced stages are clinical manifestation of ______ cancer
What is the most common tumor with endometrial cancer, and what causes it to occure.
adenocarcinoma is the most common tumor with _____ cancer and it is caused when estrogen is not counteracted by progesterone.
Endometrial cancer grows ______ and metastasizes _____.
______ cancer grows slowly and metastasizes late.
What is a diagnostic test for endometrial cancer?
Endometrial biopsy is a diagnostic test for ______ cancer.
What are some treatments for endometrial cancer? (5)
- 1) Total hysterectomy
- 2) Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (tubes and ovaries)
- 3) Lymph node biopsies
- 4) Radiation
- 5) Treatment of advanced or recurrent disease is difficult: hormones, radiation, chemo
These are all treatments for _____ cancer.
Most women with _______ cancer have the advanced disease at the time of diagnosis.
Most women with ovarian cancer have the advanced disease at the time of diagnosis.
90% of ovarian cancers are _______ carcinomas, 10% are _____ cell tumors.
__% of ovarian cancers are epithelial carcinomas, __% are germ cell tumors.
Risk factors for overian cancer. (3)
- 1) Family or personal history of ovarian, breast, or colon cancer
- 2) BRCA mutations increase susceptibility
- 3) Increasing age (average age at dx: 55-65), nulliparity, high-fat diet, increased number of ovulatory cycles, HRT
These are all risk factors for _____ cancer.
What are thought to be protective of ovarian cancer. (4)
Combined oral contraceptive use (>5 yrs), multiple pregnancies, breastfeeding, and early age at first birth are thought to be protective for _____ cancer.
Clincial manifestations of ovarian cancer are vague in the early disease, but what are some symptoms. (5)
Gas/bloating, pelvic heaviness, loss of appetite, early satiety, change in bowel habits.
These are all early/late symptoms of ovarian cancer.
What are some late symptoms of ovarian cancer. (5)
Increase in abdominal girth, bowel and bladder dysfunction, persistent pelvic or abdominal pain, menstrual irregularities, ascites
These are all late/early symptoms of ovarian cancer.
What are some diagnostic studies for ovarian cancer. (5)
- 1) No effective screening tool
- 2) Yearly bianual pelvic exam
- 3) Ultrasound if symptomatic
- 4) Exploratory laparotomy/laparoscopy used for diagnosis and staging
- 5) CA-125 tumor marker (can also be elevated for other reasons and is not a good screening tool at this time)
These are some diagnostic studies for ______ cancer