Ch. 20 Public Education
Card Set Information
Ch. 20 Public Education
How is public education accomplished by the fire department?
Distributing safety info
Writing newspaper articles
Posting information displays
The International Fire Code
Model codes that are adopted by the local jurisdiction & used in fire prevention
A cost effective method for getting vital fire & life safety information to the public
Public Service Announcements (PSA)
What are the two general ways that fire inspectors contact property owners?
Surveys & inspections
Why do FF's survey properties within their district?
To gather info or impart info
Info can be documented in a binder or computer system that can be referenced during emergency
What things are noted during preincident surveys?
Familiarize FF's with contents
Layouts of buildings
Means of egress
Built-in protections systems
Fire department access
Made to ensure compliance with applicable fire & life safety code requirements
Sometimes made by only fire inspectors or company officers & crews
When fire inspectors notice a more serious code violation what should they do?
They pass it to the fire prevention bureau for further action
Code enforcement inspections of commercial, institutional, & industrials are conducted to ensure that citizens have a safe environment
What are some things that annual fire inspections include?
Checking the inspection & maintenance dates on the portable fire extinguishers & seeing that fire extinguishers are acceptable
What kind of information is contained in fire incident records?
Critical info about the fire history of a community & can be helpful with the fire prevention efforts
What is an important activity of fire prevention?
The code enforcement inspection
Where can you find the standards that fire inspectors should meet?
A condition that increases the liklihood of a fire starting or would increase the extent or severity of a fire if one started
What is the most manageable combustion component?
Ordinary combustibles (wood, cloth, paper)
Flammable & combustible gases
Flammable & combustible liquids
Chemicals (nitrates, oxides, chlorates)
Dusts (grain, wood, metal, coal)
Plastics, resins, & cellulose
Heat Source Hazrds
Chemical heat energy
: Materials being improperly stored can result in chemical heat energy
Electrical heat energy
: Poorly maintained electrical appliances, exposed wiring, & lighting
Mechanical heat energy
: Moving parts on machines
Nuclear heat energy
: Heat created by fission, not commonly encountered by FF
What should not be stored in a furnace room or enclosure?
Common Fire Hazard
A condition that is prevalent in almost all occupancies & increases the likelihood of fire starting
Obstructed electrical panels
Poor housekeeping & improper storage of combustible materials
Defective or improperly used heating, lighting, or power equipment
Misuse of fumigation substances & flammable or combustible liquids
Improper disposal of floor-cleaning compounds
What can poor house-keeping cause?
It can make manuevering through an area difficult
Impede the path of egress
Increase the fire load
Hide fire hazards
Personal Fire Hazards
Common hazards caused by the unsafe acts of individuals
Ex. Smoking in bed
Special Fire Hazards
One that arises as a result of the processes or operations that are characteristics of the individual occupancy
Types of special fire hazards
Commercial, Manufacturing, & Public-assembly occupancies
Commercial occupancy hazards
Lack of automatic sprinklers
Change of occuapancy that exceeds use for which permit was given
Storage of large quantities of combustible products
Mixed varieties of contents
Difficulties entering places
Illegal building additions
Storage aisles incorrect distance apart
Storage obstructing sprinklers
Party walls, attics, cocklofts, etc.
Manufacturing occupancy hazards
High-hazard processes using volatile substances, oxidizers, or extreme temp.
High-piled storage of combustible materials
Operation of vehicles inside building
Large, open areas
Large-scale use of flammable & combustible gases
Lack of automatic sprinklers
Public assembly occupancies
Lack of protection systems
Large numbers of people present
Insufficient, obstructed, or locked exits
Materials stored in paths of egress
Highly combustible interior finishes
Inadequate or inoperative fire extinguishers
Inadequate or inoperative exit lighting
Any structure in which there is a greater than normal potential for the loss of life or property from a fire
Lumberyards, bulk oil storage facilities, shopping malls, hospitals, theaters, nursing homes, schools, etc.
Preincident survey kits
: Tablets, pens, pencils, clipboard, survey forms
: Engineering or graph paper, straightedge, a copy of NFPA standard symbols
: Flashlight, water-pressure gauge, camera, & measuring tape or rangefinder
How should the inspection process begin?
The company officer should introduce the team, briefly review the process, & answer any questions
The occupant should accompany the team & guide them throughout the process
What should happen if an inspection team is denied access to a room?
It should be reported to the fire marshall or fire prevention officer so an inspection warrant may be sought
Where does the inspections team start the inspection?
On the outside of the structure
When should life-saftey violations, such as obstructed exits or disabled alarms be fixed?
Immediately, before the inspection team leaves the premises
Fire Safety Surveys
Include preincident planning surveys of public & commercial occupancies & residential fire safety surveys
Preincident planning surveys
Allows FF's to gather info on a building's construction, layout, contents, fire load, hazmat, protection systems, etc.
The bulk of fuel available to burn and generally refers to the contents of a building
Should look for large quantities of
: Plastics, Aerosis, Compressed gases, Explosives, Flammable & combustible liquids, Combustible dusts, Corrosive materials
Things FF's should observe when inspecting outside of a structure
Are address numbers visible?
Are all sides of the building accessible?
Is there a building setback or other barriers to aerial devices?
Are there trees/shrubs that hide FDC?
Are there barrel windows or security doors?
What is location of utility controls?
Are the power lines overhead?
Distance from the street line to the front of a building
When survey of the exterior is complete, where is the next place for the survey team to go?
Directly to the roof or basement & proceed with a systematic survey
Many FF's prefer to start @ the roof
FF's should draw floor-plans and include the following:
What info is important to develop written preincident plans?
A complete set of notes
Well prepared drawings
For buildings where existing maps are unavailable or outdated, what should FF's do?
Include a simple plot plan drawing that shows the arrangement of the property with respect to streets & other buildings
Most important part of survey
What information does a basic floor plan drawing provide?
The building layout & additional site info
What do sectional elevation views show?
The relationship of multiple floors & penetrations such as elevator, pipe shafts, & atriums
What should you make clear when doing residential fire safety surveys?
That it is a fire prevention activity & not code enforcement
What are the main objectives when performing residential fire safety surveys?
Preventing accidental fires
Improving life safety conditions
Helping the owners to understand & improve existing conditions
Exit Drills In The Home
Conduct surveys in teams of two or more
Dress & act professionally
Introduce yourself, partner, & provide ID
Explain survey procedure
Maintain business-like attitude @ all times
Focus on preventing fires
Offer constructive suggestions
Survey all rooms & garage
Discuss survey results & answer any questions
Keep survey confidential
Residential Fire Common Causes
Malfunctioning heating appliances & water heaters
Combustibles too close to heating appliances or lamps
Unsafe cooking procedures
Overloaded extension cords & multiple-outlet devices
Exposed electrical wiring
Defective electrical appliances
Improper use of combustible/flammable liquid
Portable heating unit
Woodstoves or fireplaces
General housekeeping practices
Electrical distribution panels
Recognized testing laboratories
Underwriters Laboratory (UL)
FM Global (FM)
Chimneys & spark arrestors
Yards & porches
BBQ's & fuel
Outside waste burners
Garages, sheds, barns, & outbuildings
Flammable liquids & gases
Where should dry combustibles be stored?
Away from a structure
Home Safety Issues
Homeowners should maintain a clear path of egress
Should have two exits available
The Four E's
The four parts of effective injury prevention
Sometimes emergency response is added
Organizations used for fire facts
Home Safety Council
American Red Cross
U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commision
What is one of the most important methods in life-safety education?
To present positive information
: "Crawl low under smoke", "Get out, get out", "Call 911"
Use positve messages instead of negative ones
Basic Four-Step Method of Instruction
: Know the material, practice, & create interest
: Present facts & ideas, Use visual aids, demonstrate techniques, present pens with safety messages
: Participants are allowed to practice the info that you have given them
: Determine the effect that the presentation has on saftey & prevention in community
Common definition of a young child
Birth to 8 yrs old
Presenting Fire & Life-Safety to Children
Make presentation 15 minutes or less
Get down to childrens eye level
Do not scare children
Allow them to watch you put your gear on
Children learn best by doing not hearing
Do not allow children to wear your helmet
Stop, drop, & roll techniques
Accounted for 4% of fires in 2004
38% occured in a bedroom
Resulted in 35% of fire deaths
Safety Tips for Candles
Place on heat resistant surfaces
Always use holder
Do not place near curtains or fabrics
Keep out of reach of children
Seperate candles by @ least 4"
Do not move lighted candles
Never leave unattended
During power outage use flashlights instead
Where should smoke detectors be located?
On every level of the structure
Usually mounted on ceiling
Also mounted on walls, no closer than 4" no farther than 12"
How should smoke detectors be installed?
According to manufacturer's instructions
What is one of the first things to do when a station tour starts?
Provide instructions on what to do & whee to go if an alarm sounds during the tour
How many civilian fire casualties occur in residences each year?
What does a preincident planning survey do?
Minimizes a building's deficiences & maximizing its strengths
What is the major fuel sources in most modern commercial & mercantile building?
Furnishings & other building contents
The internal process in which energy is produced by needs or expended in the direction of goals.