Pre med terms 61-110

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jared0811
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113152
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Pre med terms 61-110
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2011-10-30 13:07:15
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pre med terms
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Bio Quiz Terms
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  1. ´╗┐Nucleic acid
    An organic compound that contains Hydrogen, Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus.
  2. Adenosine Triphosphate
    a nucleic acid that living things use to store and release energy.
  3. Macromolecule
    a molecule containing a very large number of atoms, such as a protein, nucleic acid, or synthetic polymer.
  4. Polymer
    large molecular built by combining many monomers.
  5. Monomer
    small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers.
  6. Condensation reaction
    a chemical reaction in which water is released and a macromolecule is built.
  7. Hydrolysis
    A chemical reaction in which water is added and macromolecules are broken down.
  8. Monosaccharide
    any of the class of sugars that cannot be hydrolyzed to give a simpler sugar.
  9. Disaccharide
    any of a class of sugars whose molecules contain two simple sugars.
  10. Glycosidic bond
    a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a condensation reaction.
  11. Polysaccharide
    a polymer of up to over a thousand monosaccharides, formed by condensation reactions.
  12. Phospholipids
    a molecule that is a constituent of the inner layer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.
  13. Enzyme
    A protein serving as a biological catalyst, a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
  14. Catalyst
    a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
  15. Peptide bond
    The covalent bond between two amino acid units, formed by a condensation reaction.
  16. Nucleotide
    A building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
  17. Light microscope
    An optical instrument with lenses that refract (bend) light to magnify images of specimens.
  18. Organelles
    One of several formed bodies with specialized functions, suspended in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.
  19. Electron microscope
    An instrument that focuses an electron beam through a specimen, resulting in resolving power a thousandfold greater than that of a light microscope.
  20. Prokaryotic cell
    A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; found only in the domains of Bacteria and Archaea.
  21. Eukaryotic cell
    A type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles, present in protists, plants, fungi, and animals; also called eukaryote.
  22. Cytoplasm
    jelly-like portion of the cell, exclusive of the nucleus and bounded by the plasma.
  23. Plasma membrane
    The fluid boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier, thereby regulating the cell's chemical composition.
  24. Cell nucleus
    The chromosone-containing organelle of a eukaryotic cell.
  25. Nucleolus
    a specialized structure in the nucleus, formed from various chromosomes and active in the sysnthesis of ribosomes.
  26. Ribosome
    sites of protein synthesis in all types of cells.
  27. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
    internal membrane system found in eukaryotic cells covered with ribosomes; place where proteins bound for the cell membrane are assembled.
  28. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    site of lipid synthesis and detoxification in eukaryotic cells.
  29. Golgi apparatus
    an organelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of flat membranous sacs that modify, store, and route products of the endoplasmic reticulum.
  30. Lysosomes
    A membrane enclosed sac of digestive enzymes found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.
  31. Phagocytosis
    A type of endocytosis involving large, particulate substances, accomplished mainly by macrophanges, neutrophils, and dendritic.
  32. Pinocytosis
    A type of endocytosis in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved solutes.
  33. Vacuole
    A cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.
  34. Mitochondria
    cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use.
  35. Chloroplast
    organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy.
  36. Cytoskeleton
    network of protein filaments in a eukaryotic cell that gives the cell its shape and internal organization and is involved in movement
  37. Centrioles
    structure in an animal cell that helps to organize cell division.
  38. Flagella
    structure used by protists for movement; produces movement in a wavelike motion
  39. Cilia
    short hairlike projection that produces movement
  40. Cell wall
    strong, supporting layer around the cell membrane
  41. Selectively permeable
    A property of biological membranes that allows some substances to cross more easily than others.
  42. Integral proteins
    Typically a transmembrane protein with hydrophobic regions that completely spans the hydrophobic interior of the membrane.
  43. Peripheral proteins
    A protein appendage loosely bound to the surface of a membrane and not embedded in the lipid layer.
  44. Transport proteins
    A transmembrane protein that helps a certain substance or class of closely related substances to cross the membrane.
  45. Diffusion
    The spontaneous tendency of a substance to move down its concentration gradient from a more concentrated to a less concentrated areas.
  46. Passive transport
    The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane.
  47. Osmosis
    The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
  48. Hypertonic solution
    the solution with a greater solute concentration.
  49. Hypotonic solution
    the solution with a lower solute concentration.
  50. Isotonic solution
    the same solute concentration as another solution.

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