science

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Author:
heatherrobinson444
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113169
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science
Updated:
2011-10-30 15:44:08
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midterm
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Midterm study
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  1. Rod shaped bacteria are called?
    bacillus, bacilli
  2. Sphere shaped bacteria are called?
    • coccus, cocci
    • in pairs dipplo-
    • chains strepto-
    • staphylo-
  3. Curved rod bacteria are called
    • comma shaped= vibrio
    • corkscrew shaped= spirillum, spirilla
    • moving corkscrew= spirochete
  4. Other shaped bacteria are called
    • rickettsia (ricketsiae)
    • chlamydia (chlamydiae)
  5. aerobic bacteria survive in what kind of environment
    one that is rich in oxygen
  6. anaerobic bacteria survive in what kind of environment
    one that is not rich in oxygen (tetanus)
  7. In the term Culture & Sensitivity what does culture mean?
    • involves growing bacteria in a covered dish with food
    • (culture medium) in a warm place (incubator) for a certain amount of time (minimum of 24 hrs, often 48-72 & sometimes longer) and identifying the bacteria
  8. In the term Culture & Sensitivity what does the word sensitivity refer to?
    • This will tell which antibiotics are effective in killing bacteria
    • S= microorganism is sensitive (killed by) the antibiotic, effective antibiotic to use
    • R= microorganism is resistant (not killed by) to the antibiotic, not effective so should not be used
  9. Gram Stain
    • bacteria are washed with blue dye and then red dye
    • if bacteria retain blue dye they are Gram Positive
    • if bacteria retain the red dye they are Gram Negative
  10. Acid fast staining
    bacteria are washed with red dye and then acid, some retain red dye some lose it
  11. Chain of infection
    • Infectious agent => Resevoir => Portal of Exit => Mode of transmission => Portal of entry => Susceptible Host
    • then back to infectious agent
  12. Anti-infectious agents
    • Autoclave
    • Ehthylene oxide gas
    • Paracetic acid
    • Heat,Light,Drying,Chemicals,Antiseptics
    • Disinfectants (don't kill spores) used on,equipment,supplies,floors,Medications,Antibiotics
    • Antifungals,Antihelminths,Antivirals
  13. Killer T cells (lymphocytes)
    are activated by helper t cells to kill off antigens in body
  14. Helper T cells
    • make interleukin & interact with macrophages & B cells
    • coordinate immune response, binds to marker & sends msg to Killer T cells to activate, activates macrophages & B cells
  15. Regulatory T cells
    Keep balance of killer T & suppressors
  16. Memory T cells
    some are programmed with the memory of a pathogen, will carry memory of pathogen for an extended period of time so that if re-invaded by the whole immune response happens more quickly
  17. B lymphocytes/B cells
    • B cells become activated when exposed to an antigen
    • some become plasma cells, produce antibodies
    • some become memory B cells
  18. Immunoglobulin/ Ig
    a substance produced in response to an antigen.
  19. Adaptive Natural Immunity
    • A person gets exposed to an antigen in the course of every day life, no medical science involved
    • ie get a disease and recover without medical intervention
    • ie fetus receives antibodies from the mother before birth or the baby receives antibodies through breast feeding
  20. Adaptive Artificial Immunity
    • Medical science gets involved
    • ie immunizations like vaccines
    • ie immune sera
  21. Adaptive Immunity Active
    • getting an infection and recovering
    • immunizations/vaccines
  22. Adaptive Immunity Passive
    • borrowing immunity from your mother before birth or while breastfeeding
    • a person is given an immune sera in the form of antisera, antitoxins, or antibodies
  23. The role of cells
    • Smallest living unit. Have all characteristics of life. Can live independantly of other cells. Vary is size, shape and function.
    • All except human egg are microscopic, substance of of all cells called protoplasm
  24. Plasma Membranes
    • All made up of protoplasm, more flexible, than membranes found in plants. Controls what enters and leaves the cells the cell. Communicates with other cells.
    • Membrane is selectively permeable
  25. Cytoplasm
    • Main substance that fills up the middle of the cell
    • work of the cell is done here
    • messenger RNA
    • contains organelles-each has its own structure and functions, ie mitochondria, ribosomes, lysosomes
  26. Nucleus
    • Control cell reproduction
    • nucleus contains DNA-genetic material arranged in chromosomes
    • Director of activities for the cell
    • Inner smaller section called nucleolus
    • Contains DNA, chromosomes, genes
  27. Metabolism
    All the processes or reactions that occur within the body that sustain life
  28. Catabolism
    destructive processes
  29. Anabolism
    building up processes
  30. Homeostasis
    State of balance in the internal environment of the body
  31. Passive Transport
    No required cellular energy
  32. Diffusion
    • movement of molecules from high concentration to low concentration until equal concentration.
    • ie; movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide across cells
  33. Osmosis
    • Only refers to movement of water
    • Movement of water through a semi-permeable membrane
    • water moves where the salt is
    • A concentrated solution has an osmotic pull
    • Isotonic solution:cells not affected
    • Hypotonce solution: cells swell and may burst
    • Hypertonic solution: cells lose water and shrink
  34. Filtration
    Mechanical pressure
  35. Active Transport
    • Requires cellular energy
    • Movement against concentration
    • Requires a carrier molecule
    • Selectively permeable
  36. Abdominopelvic Cavity
  37. Skin Diagram
  38. Skeletal System
  39. Muscular system: Front
  40. Muscular System: Posterior
  41. Heart Diagram
  42. ANS
    • Autonomic Nervous System, has 2 branches
    • Parasympathetic
    • Sympathetic
  43. Parasympathetic Nervous System
    by means of the Vagus nerve, releases chemical (acetylcholine) which slows the heart rate and decreases the strength of conrtaction of the heart
  44. Sympathetic Nervous System
    Nerves release a chemical Norepinephrine (adrenaline) which speeds up the heart rate and increases the strength of contraction of the heart
  45. Blood Pressure the systole is what happening in the heart?
    Heart muscle contraction
  46. Blood Pressure the diastole is what happening in the heart?
    Heart muscle relaxation
  47. SA node
    Sinoatrial Node is the pacemaker of the heart; it starts the electrical impulse and allows spread of electricity to the atria walls; this is followed by atrial contraction.
  48. Cardiac Cycle
    • one complete sequence representing a single heartbeat
    • events that happen within one heart beat
    • complete cycle = 0.8 seconds, 72 X per minute
  49. Order of blood flow from heart and back again
    From heart => Arteries => Arterioles => Capillaries => Venules => Veins => Back to heart
  50. Arteries
    Carry blood away from heart, mostly oxygenated, has the highest pressure
  51. Veins
    Carry blood to heart, mostly deoxygenated, much less pressure than the arteries
  52. Capillaries
    • Form bridges between arteries and veins, create a "U" turn back to heart.
    • Connect the smallest of arteries with the smallest of veins
  53. Aortic Circulation
  54. Vein Circulation
  55. Pulmonary Circulation
    Deoxygenated blood > Right Atrium > Right Ventricle > Pulmonary Artery > Right or Left Pulmonary Artery Branches > Arterioles > Capillaries (exchange of CO2 for O2) > Venules > Right or left pulmonary Veins > Left Atrium
  56. Systemic Circulation
    • Starts at the Aorta
    • Oxygenated blood > Left Atrium > Left Ventricle > Aorta > Ascending Aorta (R & L coronary artery branches) > Aortic Arch > Brachiocephalic Artery > L Common Carotid Artery > L Subclavian Artery > Descending Aorta > Thoracic Aorta > Abdominal Aorta > Gastric Artery > Hepatic Artery > Renal Arteries > Splenic Arteries > Mesenteric Arteries > Common Iliac Arteries go down into legs
  57. Pulse points
    Temporal Arteries, Brachial, Radial, Ulnar, Femoral, Popliteal, dorsalis pedis & Apical
  58. The Pulse
    The force of ventricular contraction starts a wave of increased pressure that begins at the heart and travels along the arteries. This wave is the pulse
  59. Vasomotor Center
    In the Medulla of the brain stem regulates vasomotor activities, sending its messages through the autonomic nervous system

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