Biology - Genetic Engineering

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Author:
katienewman
ID:
113174
Filename:
Biology - Genetic Engineering
Updated:
2011-10-30 15:17:20
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Biology
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Biology
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  1. Genetic Engineering
    Def: the artificial manipulation or alteration of genes.

    AKA: Genetic manipulation, genetic modification, recombinant DNA technology, genetic splicing & gene cloning
  2. Diagram
  3. Genetic Engineering Breaks the Species Barrier
    • Human genes inserted into bacteria
    • Bacterial genes inserted into plants
    • Human genes inserted into other animals
  4. Tools Used in Genetic Engineering
    • A source of DNA – Foreign DNA, from an organism
    • A cloning vector accepts DNA and replicates it eg. Bacterial plasmid
    • Restriction Enzyme cuts DNA in specific places, acts like a genetic scissors
    • DNA Ligase – ‘glue’ foreign DNA to join with the DNA of the cloning vector
  5. Restriction Enzymes & DNA Ligase
    • Restriction Enzymes
    • Only cut DNA at particular sites (restriction site)
    • If DNA from 2 different organisms is cut with the same restriction enzyme, the cut ends from both sources will be complimentary

    • DNA Ligase
    • Enzyme that sticks DNA molecules from different sources firmly together
    • Will only work if both DNA have been cut by the same restriction enzyme
  6. The Process of Genetic Engineering
    • 1. Isolation
    • Removal of both human DNA containing target
    • gene from its chromosome and plasmid DNA from bacterium

    • 2.Cutting
    • Human DNA and plasmid DNA are cut using the restriction enzyme at recognition site

    • 3. Ligation
    • Target gene is placed into the DNA of the
    • plasmid or cloning vector and joins (glues) onto it using DNA Ligase

    • 4.Transformation
    • This is the uptake of DNA into a cell. Only about 1% of bacterial cells take up plasmid and target gene.

    • 5. Cloning
    • Identical copies of the bacterium are produced using a nutrient medium

    • 6. Expression
    • Getting the organism with the recombinant DNA to
    • produce the desired product
  7. Applications of Genetic Engineering
    Plant: Bacterial genes are added to crop plants so they will have resistance to herbicides

    Animal: Some people can’t reproduce a protective protein (ATT) in their lungs leading to collapse of alveoli, a condition known as emphysema. ATT is inserted into sheep DNA and sheep produce the protein in their milk.

    • Micro-organism: Human insulin is inserted into bacterium which reproduces large quantities of insulin
    • used by diabetics
  8. Ethical Issues in Genetic Engineering
    • Fear that animals will suffer
    • Fear that humans may be genetically modified
    • Use of GMOs as a food source

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