Bone Blood HIstology Mini2

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  1. Estradoil
    • Osteoclast inhibitor
    • Estrogen derivative
    • decrease after menaupause, contributes to osteoperosis
  2. Somatotrophin
    • Pituatary growth hormone
    • promote epithyseal plate growth
    • somatotrophin --> somatomedin C (liver producted) --> chondrocyte division-->epithyseal plate growth
    • interstitial(epithyseal) endochondrial growth
    • def. leads to achondroplasia
  3. Hyalin cartilage
    • Type II collagen with proteoglycan aggregates
    • Fetal skeleton
    • articular surface of bones
    • nasal cartilage, larnyx
    • tracheal rings and bronchial plates
    • most have perichondrium
    • articular and epiphyseal plates does not have perichondrium (they grow by interstitial rather than appositional growth)
  4. Cartilage peoteoglycan aggregates
    • aggrecans
    • --chondrotin sulfate
    • --keratan sulfate
    • hyaluronans
  5. Hyalin cartilage bone formation
    • with perchondrium -- appositional growth
    • without perichondrium -- interstitial growth
    • both are considered endochondrial in babies
  6. Elastic cartilage
    • haylin with elastic fibers
    • grows via perichondium but does not form bone, no calcification
  7. Fibro cartilage
    • Type 1/2 cartilage
    • no pericondrium
    • Condrocytes spit out type II collagen
    • Fibroblasts spit out type I collagen
    • Strong and resists deformity
    • at areas like annulus fibrosis of vertebras, pubic symphasis and meniscis of the knee
  8. Osteal clasts
    • fusion of many CFU-mono derived osteoblasts
    • Forms Howship lacuna when digesting bone
    • uses H2CO3 acid to dissolve inorganic
    • enzymes to eat organic material
  9. Osteocytes
    • main tains bone and calcium homeostasis
    • transduces pressure signals
  10. Osteoblasts
    • secrets osteoid
    • forms lacunea
  11. Osteon canals
    • Haversian - longitudenal
    • Volkman's - transverse/horizontal
  12. Calcitonin
    • Controls plasma calcium levels by decreaseing Ca release
    • Parafollicular cells of the thyroid ( but less important than parathyroid because Di-George syndrom would produce hypocalcimia rather than hyper or normal)
    • inhibits osteoclasts -like estradiol
    • decrease serum calcium
  13. Parathyroid Hormone
    • Controls plasma calium levels by increase Ca release
    • stimulates soteoblasts to produce osteoclast stimulating hormone
    • increase osteoclast activity breaks down bown and release calcium into blood
    • Absence (Di-George syndrom) results in hypocalcimia
  14. Vita D def.
    • Rickets --> deformed bones
    • decrease ossification at epiphysial plate
    • osteomalcia --> prego decrease in vita D
    • Calcium absoprtion
  15. Thyroid, parathyroid, pituatary control of bone
    • Thyroid --> calcitonin --> keep bone
    • Parathyroid -->PTH --> remove bone
    • Pituatary --> Somatotropin -->grows bone
  16. Muscles of the eye - dilator pupillae
    neuro ectoderm origin
  17. Nebulin
    • sarcomere component
    • attaches actin (thin filiment) to Z line
  18. Titin
    • Sarcomere component
    • attaches myosin (thick filiment) to Z line
  19. C protein / M protein of sarcormere
    • structural support that binds myosin to other myosin (middle of A band)
    • M protein also attaches to Creatine Kinase
  20. Dystrophin / Dyestroglycan
    • Dystrophin attaches actin (as a part of sarcomere) to the sarcolema
    • alpha dystroglycan attaches muscle cells to the basal lamina
  21. SK muscle Triad
    • T-tuble (continuation of sarcolema) invaginate between I-band and A-band
    • Sarcoplasmic reticulum forms 2x terminal cisterns
    • complexed to spread excitation signal
  22. DHP receptor
    • Voltage gated muscle membrand receptor that changes confirmation upon sarcoplasma depolerization
    • Shape change open Ryanodine receptors
    • Opens Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+ store
    • contraction elicited from increase in sarcoplasmic Ca2+
  23. Troponin
    • Globular control protein
    • 3 sections
    • Ca2+ binding
    • Actin binding
    • Tropo
  24. Muscle Spindle
    • Muscle strech receptors - will not contract
    • Intrafusal fibers has sensory fibers wraped around nuclear cain/big fibers
    • motor nerve innervation will not produce contraction, will adjust sensitivity
    • Extrafusal fibers will get somatic nerve innervation
  25. Botulisim
    • blocks ACh vesicle release
    • muscle paralysis
  26. Myathenia gravis
    • Produce ACh Receptor Auto-antibody
    • Blocks post synaptic excitation
    • ACh-esterase inhibitor to treat
  27. Cardiac Muscle Interculated Disks
    • Transverse Section - Desmosomes to attach cells together
    • Longitudenal Sections - Gap junction functionality
  28. Lipofasin granuels
    • In cardiac cells
    • or any cells that doesn't die
    • things they can't digest
  29. Cardiac Di-ads
    • ONE Small terminal cistern
    • Large T-tuble ON the Z-line
  30. Secretory Cardia Cells
    • Atrial Natiuretic polypeptide secreting cells
    • ANF decreases blood pressure by decrease blood volume by decrease Na reabsorption
  31. Regeneration of Muscle cells
    • Cardia - no regeneration
    • Skeleto - satellite cells regenerate
    • Smooth - mesenchymal precursor freely regenerated
  32. Smooth muscle excitation contraction
    • Receptor mediated signaling cascade
    • IP3/DAG production from receptor binding to post synaptic neurotransmittor
    • IP3/DAG stimulate Ca release
    • Ca+ activates Calmodulin --> phosporylate (act.) Myosin light chain kinase --> phosporylate (act.) myosin light chains exposing myosin actin binding sites
  33. Smooth muscle contraction signals
    • Neuro transmittor --> Ach
    • Physical stimuli --> stretching
    • Hormones --> Oxitocin
  34. Nexus
    Smooth muscle gap junction
  35. Dense bodies
    • Smooth muscle alpha actin anchors
    • No sarcomere, actin organized by anchors
    • Contraction produces cork screw deformities
  36. Graded singlar potential
    • NMJ single twitch wise contraction of muscles
    • Smooth muscles capable of prolonged slow contraction
  37. Myoepithelial cells
    • Ectoderm progenitor (muscle is mesoderm)
    • Expells secretions
    • sweat gland, mammary gland, lacrimal gland, and salivary gland.
  38. Myofibroblasts
    Wound contraction with myosin and actin
Author
ID
113179
Card Set
Bone Blood HIstology Mini2
Description
Histology mini2
Updated
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