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2011-10-31 08:53:29

Chapter 14-15
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  1. What is immunolgy
  2. Blank
  3. Agaion
  4. Primary purpose of immune system
    Defense, Fluid Balance, Fat absorbtion
  5. Define Lymphatic tissue
    • Conn tissue w/ matrix of lymphocytes
    • Simple-diffuse lymphatic tissue
    • No clear boundry
    • Lymphatic nodules-densely packed lymphocytes in loose conn tissue
  6. Continued:
    • Lymph nodules:
    • spherical in shape-no capsule
    • germinal centers-mitosis
  7. Lymphatic tissue found:
    • beneathe epithelium of:
    • respiratory tract
    • digestive tract-Peyers patch
    • urinary tract
    • tonsils-pharyngeal (adenoid), palatine (tonsils), lingual
    • appendix-fused nodules
  8. Lymph fluid:
    Leaves capillaeries-does not reenter venous end-so enters lymphatic vessels-carries foreign antigens
  9. Lymph moved by
    • Contraction of lymphatic vessesl(smooth muscle)
    • skeletal muscle (muscle pump)
    • thoracic pressure changes (respiratory pump)
  10. Thymus
    • T cells migrate here from bone marrow
    • bilobular-triange-superior to heart
    • max size in puberty
    • cortex (outer)T cells undergo mitosis
    • medulla(inner)-self reactive T-cells deleted
  11. Nonspecific/Innate Immunity
    Defense against all pathogens-no specifity
  12. 1-physical barrier:
    • Skin-Dry for microbes-acidic PH
    • secrete sweat and sebaceous glands contain antimicrobila factor
  13. Tears-Saliva-contain Lysozyme-attack bacterial cell wall
    Urine-Acidic-flush tract
    Stomach-acidic PH-hostile
  14. 2-Phagocytes-eat microbes-recognize-Pamps(pathogenic antigens)
    • Lysozyme and acidic hydrolase carry out indigestion
    • Hydrogen Peroxide(H2o2), Niric Oxide(NO2), superoxide anions(o-)-lethal to bacteria
  15. Types of Phagocytes:
    • Fixed macrophages-alveolar macrophages-lives in lungs
    • Free Macrophages-Mobile
    • Neutrophils-in blood-eat bacteria
    • Eosinophils-eat antigen-body complex
    • Monocytes-In blood-leave blooda nd become macrophages
  16. Other phagocyte info:
    Release chemotactic factors-call other phagocytes
  17. Opsonins:
    • Molecules which increase phagocytosis
    • EX-compliment proteins and antibodies
  18. 3-Cellular Killing-Natural Killers:
    • NK cells kill ALL tumors or virally infected cells
    • have lrg granules in cytoplasm w/ perforin in them
  19. 4-Inflammatory Response:
    have toll like receptors
  20. Chemical factors involved in inflammation:
    • 1-Histamine-released by basophils and mast cells
    • causes vasoldilation in local region-makes leaky
    • brings more blood
    • plasma and wbc leave vessels migrate to tissue
    • allows wall off-prevent spread of infection
    • stimulates gland secretions-arrtacts eosinophils
  21. 2-Leukotrienes
    • produced by basophils and mast cells
    • cause prolonged muscle contarction-in lungs,
    • most potent stimulator of bronchiloe constriction
    • increase vascular permeability-attract neutrophils and eosinophils
  22. 3-prostaglandins
    • made by all cells
    • causes vasoldilation-increase permeability
    • stimulate pain receptor
  23. 4-Kinins:
    • Polypeptides derived from plasma proteins
    • causes vasodilation, increased permaebility
    • stimulate pain
    • attract netrophil
  24. 5-Fever
    • a pyrogen made of macrophages, bacterial cell components, and viruses
    • inhinits pathoge replication
    • peps up immune system
    • causes macrophages to keep FE stored-inhibits bacteria
    • 104 degrees can cause brain damage
  25. 6-Interferons: chemicals released by Virally infected cells
    • Act to inhibit viral replication
    • act only on local neigh cells
    • neigh cells crank metabolism to inhibit vral replication
    • alpha, beta, gamma
  26. 7-Complement system:
    • 20 proteins found in blood
    • exist in inactive form
    • 3 major actions:
    • cell wall of pathogen destroyed
    • phagocytes attracted-act as opsinins
    • inflammatory reponse
  27. Specific Immunity: Defense tailor made for each pathogen
    does not see intact bacterium only antigens on the bacteria
  28. Lymphocytes-Specific Immunity
    • T cells leave bone marrow-go to Thymus
    • B cells don't go to thymus-go into circultation
    • B cells mature in bone marrow
  29. Antigen: a molecule that elicits immune response
    • Large-EX-proteins
    • bad EX-Carbs
    • only 6-8 amino acids what seen(antigenis determinant)-epitope
    • a bacteria may have several diff antigens on surface
  30. Characteristics of Specific Immunity:
    • 1-Specific
    • 2-Exhibits memory
    • 3-Diversity-a immune response to more that 1 mill antigens
    • 4-Self vs. Nonself
  31. 2 arms of spec immunity
    • 1-Cellular Immunity-T cells are effectors
    • 2-Humoral Immunity-Antibodies are effectors(B cells)
  32. Cytokines
    • Very imp in immune system
    • Direct activity of immune system
  33. Interleukins -chemical mess released between white blood cells
    • 11-1-released by antigen presenting cells-stimulates T cell-acts on hypothalumus-brings fever
    • 11-2-released by Th cells stimulate Tc cell then B cell
    • Interferons are type of cytokine
  34. 3 cell types in Specific Immunity:
    • APC cells-Antigen presenting cells-B cell, dendritic cell, macrophage
    • T cell-CD4(helper), CD8(killer)
    • B cell-goes into plasma membrane secretes antobodies-stimulates CD4
  35. Macrophages/Dendritic cells-recognize and present pathogens
    • have PAMP-pathogen ass mol pattern on their surface
    • toll like receptors
    • antigen process-eat antigens-chop into pieces
    • then put on their surface with MHC-present antigen to T cell
    • B cells also capable of presenting antigens to T cells
  36. Costimulation:
    T cells need 2nd signal-the APC releases interleukin 1 to T cell to activate it
  37. Macrophage
    also player in nonspecific immunity-will gobble up bacteria here too
  38. MHC: Major Histocompatibilty Complex-antigen/ marker on cells
    2 classes:
    • MHC1-identify self cells-on all nucleated cells-transplant rejection if antigens of donor and reciever not matched
    • MHCII-only on antigen presenting cells
    • MUST presnt antigen to T cell or T cell won't recognize antigen
  39. T cells 3 subsets:
    • Th-CD4 helper cell-conduct immune respose
    • nothing happens if not directed by Th cells
    • Tb-CD8-cytotoxic T cells-killers
    • B cells-make antibodies when activated by Th cells-CAn do without Th cells sometimes
  40. CD 8 cells:
    • also release granzymes on top of perforin-granzymes enter target cell and cause fragmentation of target cell DNA (apoptosis-cell suicide)
    • clones are made
    • memory cells made
  41. Tregs:
    Active in supressing immune system
  42. B cells:
    • cells are cloned
    • make antibody specific for antigen
    • can pump 2000 antibodies
    • BUT only 1 specific antibody
    • memory cells also made
  43. Specific Immune Response:
    Take place in immune organs-lymph nodse, spleen
  44. Recap:
    • 11-1-secreted by macrophages stimulates T cells
    • 11-2-made by CD4/Th cells and stimulates immune system
  45. Who must see the antigen?
    ALL of the immune cell players
  46. Antibodies made of?
    • Immunoglobulins
    • overall shape of a Y
  47. Antibodise made of 4 chains:
    • 2 heavy chains-identical, constan region, variable region-variable region binds to antigen
    • 2 light chains-indentical, constant portion,variable portion, variable portion binds to antigen
    • Antibody has binding site for complement and binding site for macrophages,basophils and mast cells
  48. 5 classes of antibodies:
    • IgM-in blood, 1st antibody in immune response,large, 5 antibodies linked tog,initiates complement system
    • IgA-in blood and mom's milk secretions, 2 antobody linked tog, makes mucosal immunity-released in gut and vagina
    • IgD-in B cell, serves as B cell receptor
    • IgE-in blood-active in allergy and inflammtion
    • IgG-in blood, large quantities in memory resones, small can cross placenta
  49. Antibodies:
    • may bind to viruses and prevent from attach to self cell
    • bind to toxin and render harmlesss(neutralization by antitoxins)
    • may bind to surface of antigen and glue pathogens tog(agglutination)-disables pathogens
    • may bind to pathogesn and disbale them(clump recipitates out of the solution)
    • may bind to antigen and enhance phagocytosis(opsinization)
    • may stimulate inflammation
    • may initiate compliment system
    • ARE the most effective against EXTRACELLULAR PATHOGENS!!!!
  50. Cellular Immunity carried out by CD8/Tc cells- kills self altered cells
    • must have antigen presented by altered slef cell w/MHC1 mol
    • must have command of CD4/Th cell
  51. Tolerance:
    • State of nonresponsiveness of immune system to specific antigen-results overexposure to that antigen
    • prevents immune rseponse to self antigens
  52. Tolerance induced by:
    • Deletion-of self reactive lymphocytse in thymus prenatally
    • Preventing either signal that activates lymphocyes
    • Suppression of T reg cells
  53. Immunity classified by how aquired:
    • Genetic-specise specified
    • Avtive-you make the immune respones:
    • natural active-acquired through normal exposure
    • artificial active-vaccination
    • Passive Immunity-you dont make immune response
    • natural passive-antibodies passed from mom to baby
    • artificial passive-recieve immune cells from shot of someone elses antibodise-gamma globulin shot