The flashcards below were created by user loriny23 on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. What is immunolgy
  2. Blank
  3. Agaion
  4. Primary purpose of immune system
    Defense, Fluid Balance, Fat absorbtion
  5. Define Lymphatic tissue
    • Conn tissue w/ matrix of lymphocytes
    • Simple-diffuse lymphatic tissue
    • No clear boundry
    • Lymphatic nodules-densely packed lymphocytes in loose conn tissue
  6. Continued:
    • Lymph nodules:
    • spherical in shape-no capsule
    • germinal centers-mitosis
  7. Lymphatic tissue found:
    • beneathe epithelium of:
    • respiratory tract
    • digestive tract-Peyers patch
    • urinary tract
    • tonsils-pharyngeal (adenoid), palatine (tonsils), lingual
    • appendix-fused nodules
  8. Lymph fluid:
    Leaves capillaeries-does not reenter venous end-so enters lymphatic vessels-carries foreign antigens
  9. Lymph moved by
    • Contraction of lymphatic vessesl(smooth muscle)
    • skeletal muscle (muscle pump)
    • thoracic pressure changes (respiratory pump)
  10. Thymus
    • T cells migrate here from bone marrow
    • bilobular-triange-superior to heart
    • max size in puberty
    • cortex (outer)T cells undergo mitosis
    • medulla(inner)-self reactive T-cells deleted
  11. Nonspecific/Innate Immunity
    Defense against all pathogens-no specifity
  12. 1-physical barrier:
    • Skin-Dry for microbes-acidic PH
    • secrete sweat and sebaceous glands contain antimicrobila factor
  13. Tears-Saliva-contain Lysozyme-attack bacterial cell wall
    Urine-Acidic-flush tract
    Stomach-acidic PH-hostile
  14. 2-Phagocytes-eat microbes-recognize-Pamps(pathogenic antigens)
    • Lysozyme and acidic hydrolase carry out indigestion
    • Hydrogen Peroxide(H2o2), Niric Oxide(NO2), superoxide anions(o-)-lethal to bacteria
  15. Types of Phagocytes:
    • Fixed macrophages-alveolar macrophages-lives in lungs
    • Free Macrophages-Mobile
    • Neutrophils-in blood-eat bacteria
    • Eosinophils-eat antigen-body complex
    • Monocytes-In blood-leave blooda nd become macrophages
  16. Other phagocyte info:
    Release chemotactic factors-call other phagocytes
  17. Opsonins:
    • Molecules which increase phagocytosis
    • EX-compliment proteins and antibodies
  18. 3-Cellular Killing-Natural Killers:
    • NK cells kill ALL tumors or virally infected cells
    • have lrg granules in cytoplasm w/ perforin in them
  19. 4-Inflammatory Response:
    have toll like receptors
  20. Chemical factors involved in inflammation:
    • 1-Histamine-released by basophils and mast cells
    • causes vasoldilation in local region-makes leaky
    • brings more blood
    • plasma and wbc leave vessels migrate to tissue
    • allows wall off-prevent spread of infection
    • stimulates gland secretions-arrtacts eosinophils
  21. 2-Leukotrienes
    • produced by basophils and mast cells
    • cause prolonged muscle contarction-in lungs,
    • most potent stimulator of bronchiloe constriction
    • increase vascular permeability-attract neutrophils and eosinophils
  22. 3-prostaglandins
    • made by all cells
    • causes vasoldilation-increase permeability
    • stimulate pain receptor
  23. 4-Kinins:
    • Polypeptides derived from plasma proteins
    • causes vasodilation, increased permaebility
    • stimulate pain
    • attract netrophil
  24. 5-Fever
    • a pyrogen made of macrophages, bacterial cell components, and viruses
    • inhinits pathoge replication
    • peps up immune system
    • causes macrophages to keep FE stored-inhibits bacteria
    • 104 degrees can cause brain damage
  25. 6-Interferons: chemicals released by Virally infected cells
    • Act to inhibit viral replication
    • act only on local neigh cells
    • neigh cells crank metabolism to inhibit vral replication
    • alpha, beta, gamma
  26. 7-Complement system:
    • 20 proteins found in blood
    • exist in inactive form
    • 3 major actions:
    • cell wall of pathogen destroyed
    • phagocytes attracted-act as opsinins
    • inflammatory reponse
  27. Specific Immunity: Defense tailor made for each pathogen
    does not see intact bacterium only antigens on the bacteria
  28. Lymphocytes-Specific Immunity
    • T cells leave bone marrow-go to Thymus
    • B cells don't go to thymus-go into circultation
    • B cells mature in bone marrow
  29. Antigen: a molecule that elicits immune response
    • Large-EX-proteins
    • bad EX-Carbs
    • only 6-8 amino acids what seen(antigenis determinant)-epitope
    • a bacteria may have several diff antigens on surface
  30. Characteristics of Specific Immunity:
    • 1-Specific
    • 2-Exhibits memory
    • 3-Diversity-a immune response to more that 1 mill antigens
    • 4-Self vs. Nonself
  31. 2 arms of spec immunity
    • 1-Cellular Immunity-T cells are effectors
    • 2-Humoral Immunity-Antibodies are effectors(B cells)
  32. Cytokines
    • Very imp in immune system
    • Direct activity of immune system
  33. Interleukins -chemical mess released between white blood cells
    • 11-1-released by antigen presenting cells-stimulates T cell-acts on hypothalumus-brings fever
    • 11-2-released by Th cells stimulate Tc cell then B cell
    • Interferons are type of cytokine
  34. 3 cell types in Specific Immunity:
    • APC cells-Antigen presenting cells-B cell, dendritic cell, macrophage
    • T cell-CD4(helper), CD8(killer)
    • B cell-goes into plasma membrane secretes antobodies-stimulates CD4
  35. Macrophages/Dendritic cells-recognize and present pathogens
    • have PAMP-pathogen ass mol pattern on their surface
    • toll like receptors
    • antigen process-eat antigens-chop into pieces
    • then put on their surface with MHC-present antigen to T cell
    • B cells also capable of presenting antigens to T cells
  36. Costimulation:
    T cells need 2nd signal-the APC releases interleukin 1 to T cell to activate it
  37. Macrophage
    also player in nonspecific immunity-will gobble up bacteria here too
  38. MHC: Major Histocompatibilty Complex-antigen/ marker on cells
    2 classes:
    • MHC1-identify self cells-on all nucleated cells-transplant rejection if antigens of donor and reciever not matched
    • MHCII-only on antigen presenting cells
    • MUST presnt antigen to T cell or T cell won't recognize antigen
  39. T cells 3 subsets:
    • Th-CD4 helper cell-conduct immune respose
    • nothing happens if not directed by Th cells
    • Tb-CD8-cytotoxic T cells-killers
    • B cells-make antibodies when activated by Th cells-CAn do without Th cells sometimes
  40. CD 8 cells:
    • also release granzymes on top of perforin-granzymes enter target cell and cause fragmentation of target cell DNA (apoptosis-cell suicide)
    • clones are made
    • memory cells made
  41. Tregs:
    Active in supressing immune system
  42. B cells:
    • cells are cloned
    • make antibody specific for antigen
    • can pump 2000 antibodies
    • BUT only 1 specific antibody
    • memory cells also made
  43. Specific Immune Response:
    Take place in immune organs-lymph nodse, spleen
  44. Recap:
    • 11-1-secreted by macrophages stimulates T cells
    • 11-2-made by CD4/Th cells and stimulates immune system
  45. Who must see the antigen?
    ALL of the immune cell players
  46. Antibodies made of?
    • Immunoglobulins
    • overall shape of a Y
  47. Antibodise made of 4 chains:
    • 2 heavy chains-identical, constan region, variable region-variable region binds to antigen
    • 2 light chains-indentical, constant portion,variable portion, variable portion binds to antigen
    • Antibody has binding site for complement and binding site for macrophages,basophils and mast cells
  48. 5 classes of antibodies:
    • IgM-in blood, 1st antibody in immune response,large, 5 antibodies linked tog,initiates complement system
    • IgA-in blood and mom's milk secretions, 2 antobody linked tog, makes mucosal immunity-released in gut and vagina
    • IgD-in B cell, serves as B cell receptor
    • IgE-in blood-active in allergy and inflammtion
    • IgG-in blood, large quantities in memory resones, small can cross placenta
  49. Antibodies:
    • may bind to viruses and prevent from attach to self cell
    • bind to toxin and render harmlesss(neutralization by antitoxins)
    • may bind to surface of antigen and glue pathogens tog(agglutination)-disables pathogens
    • may bind to pathogesn and disbale them(clump recipitates out of the solution)
    • may bind to antigen and enhance phagocytosis(opsinization)
    • may stimulate inflammation
    • may initiate compliment system
    • ARE the most effective against EXTRACELLULAR PATHOGENS!!!!
  50. Cellular Immunity carried out by CD8/Tc cells- kills self altered cells
    • must have antigen presented by altered slef cell w/MHC1 mol
    • must have command of CD4/Th cell
  51. Tolerance:
    • State of nonresponsiveness of immune system to specific antigen-results overexposure to that antigen
    • prevents immune rseponse to self antigens
  52. Tolerance induced by:
    • Deletion-of self reactive lymphocytse in thymus prenatally
    • Preventing either signal that activates lymphocyes
    • Suppression of T reg cells
  53. Immunity classified by how aquired:
    • Genetic-specise specified
    • Avtive-you make the immune respones:
    • natural active-acquired through normal exposure
    • artificial active-vaccination
    • Passive Immunity-you dont make immune response
    • natural passive-antibodies passed from mom to baby
    • artificial passive-recieve immune cells from shot of someone elses antibodise-gamma globulin shot
Card Set
Chapter 14-15
Show Answers