Computer

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Author:
xryan27x
ID:
113266
Filename:
Computer
Updated:
2011-10-30 22:51:32
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computer
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Description:
computer lecture
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  1. What is a computer?
    An elctronice machine that is capable of performing claculations on various types of information (data) by using a stored set of instructions
  2. 3 priniciples of Babage's "Differnce Engine" still used today
    • Data input into computer memory
    • Data proccessed in a centeral unit
    • Data is output in a readable format
  3. Who built a working differnce engine using only technology from the 1820's?
    1991 London Science Museum
  4. Punch card technology
    Early binary storage, 1=punch hole 0= no punch hole
  5. Begining of general purpose computers
    • Started during WWII
    • Often filled entire rooms
  6. Mainframe computers
    small desk terminals connect to large mainframe computer in another room
  7. WWII
    • beginning of general purpose computers
    • reprogrammed for new tasks
    • often filled entire rooms
  8. 1960's
    Mainframe computers developed
  9. Early 1970's
    • -"Minicomputers" developed
    • refigerator size
    • too large and expensive for home use
  10. 1975
    • -Altair 8800 introduced
    • first affordable home pc
    • no keyboard, monitor or software
  11. When was Altair 8800 first introduced?
    • 1975
    • first affordable home pc
    • no keyboard, monitor, or software
  12. Bill Gates and Paul Allen first miscrosoft project
    BASIC- Beginners All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
  13. BASIC
    Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
  14. GUI
    graphical user interface
  15. Xerrox Alto
    • 1st GUI computer
    • Developed in 1973 before Altair
    • used windows, menus, and icons
  16. 1983 Apple Lisa
    • 1st GUI home pc
    • 1st to have mouse
  17. Input Devices
    • Mouse
    • Keyboard
    • Scanner
  18. Output Devices
    • Monitor
    • Printer
  19. Central processing unit (CPU)
    • Processes software instructions which are stored in memory as digital data
    • Data is carried from memory to CPU via electrical current
    • Original CPUs used mechanical vaccum tubes to amplify and control electricity(they were large and fragile)
  20. Modern CPUs and microprocessors
    • smaller transistors significantly reduced CPU size
    • single integrated circuit consisting of many transistors
  21. Moore's Law
    • Number of transistors on an integrated circuit will double every 24 months
    • Held true for decades (more or less)
    • Holds today due to multicore chips
  22. RAM (random access memory)
    • Primary memory
    • made of integrated circuit chips on silcon
    • CPU needs to process data quickly
    • data is moved from relatively slow storage memory(hard drive) to faster RAM
    • RAM can be over written with new info

    • Pro: very fast access
    • Con: easily erased by crash or power surge
  23. Storage memory
    • Secondary memory
    • hard disk drive (HDD)
    • hard platters, magetic surfaces that hold against digital data
    • data located by sector
    • platters spin at 5400-15000 rpm
  24. Flash memory
    • solid state storage
    • good size to storage space ratio
  25. optical drive
    • laser light used to read and "burn" data onto discs
    • (DVD drives)
  26. ROM (read only memory)
    • memory stays even when power is off
    • cannot be easily overwritten
    • installed at manufacturing
  27. BIOS
    • (Basic Integrated Operating System)
    • Installed by PC manuacturer
    • basic "boot up info" on chip
    • Allows computer to start up
  28. Motherboard
    • hold all primary integrated circuit chips:
    • CPU
    • RAM
    • PCIE
    • BIOS

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