sociology chapter 6

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  1. Deviance
    is a violation of ever-changing social norms.

    is socially constructed

    Some acts are deviant at one time and place and not at others
  2. Crime
    the forms of deviance in which formal penalties are imposed by the society
  3. Misconceptions about deviance
    • Some acts are inherently deviant.
    • Those who deviate are socially identified and recognized .
    • Deviants purposely and knowingly break the law.
    • Deviance occurs because there is a dishonest, selfish element to human nature.
  4. Consensus crimes
    when members of society are in general agreement about the seriousness of deviant acts (example predatory crimes(murder, rape)
  5. Conflict crimes
    occur when one group passes a law over which there is disagreement or that disadvantages another group
  6. Stigma
    the disapproval attached to disobeying the expected norms
  7. Micro level explanation of deviance: rational choice
    Human beings seek to max pleasure and min pain. Whether to be deviant depends upon the calculation of the pleasure/pain ratio

    • Positive sanctions - rewards for socially approved behaviors
    • Negative sanctions - punishments for breaking societal norms

    If people use rational choice, we can deter deviance by increasing the costs
  8. Social control theoy
    • Bonds encourage us to adhere to norms
    • People are bonded to society in 4 ways
    • 1.Attachment to others
    • 2.Commitment to conventional activities
    • 3.Involvement in activities that keep them busy
    • 4.Belief in the social rules of their culture
  9. internal controls
    Those voices within us which tell us when a behavior is acceptable or unacceptable, right or wrong
  10. External controls
    Society’s formal or informal controls against deviant behavior
  11. Differential association (or reinforcement) theory
    conformity or deviance is learned from those we spend time with
  12. labeling theory
    • Being labeled can reinforce deviant behavior by:
    • •Increasing alienation
    • •Forcing increased interaction with deviant peers
    • •Motivating juvenile delinquents to positively value and identify with the deviant status
    • Deviance becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy
    • Those with less power in society are more likely to be labeled as deviants
  13. primary deviance(labeling theory)
    •violation of a norm that may be an isolated act, individual is generally not initially labeled as a result of the act
  14. Secondary theory(labeling theory)
    individual continues to violate a norm and begins to take on a deviant identity; this becomes publicly recognized and individual is identified as a deviant
  15. Meso- and Macro-Level Explanations of Deviance
    • Meso-level analysis is focused on ethnic subcultures and national organizations and institutions within a nation
    • Macro-level theory focuses more on societies and global social systems
  16. Anomie and social disorganization(structural-functionalist)
    the breakdown of the norms guiding behavior leads to social disorganization
  17. Strain theory
    those with fewer resources are less able to achieve societally shared goals and may resort to deviant behaviors to achieve their desired goals
  18. Strain
    an experience created by the difference between definitions of success (goals) and the means available to achieve those goals that can lead to deviance
  19. Merton 5 ways to adapt to strain
    • Conformity- embracing the society's definition of success and adhering to the established and approved means of achieving success
    • Innovation- use of illicit means to reach approved goals
    • Ritualism- strict adherence to culturally‑ prescribed rules, even though individuals give up on the goals they hoped to achieve
    • Retreatism- giving up on both the goals and the means
    • Rebellion- rejecting the socially approved ideas of "success" and the means of attaining that success, but replaces those with alternative definitions of success and alternative strategies for attaining the new goals
  20. Structural Functionalist Viewpoint
    • •Sets examples of unacceptable behavior
    • •Provides guidelines for behavior that is necessary to maintain social order
    • •Bonds people together through their common rejection of deviant behavior
    • •Provides jobs for those who deal with deviants
    • •Can signal problems in a society that need addressed (stimulate positive change)
    • •Opens societies to new and creative paths of thinking
  21. Meso- and Macro-Level Explanations of Deviance
    • Elites want to maintain control, so they define what is deviant to benefit themselves and deflect attention from their own behaviors
    • The greater the difference between the minority and majority, the greater the conflict in a society
    • Conflict is inevitable under the current power arrangement
  22. conflict theory
    deviance is a result of social inequality
  23. Feminist theory-
    abuses suffered by women are rooted in the patriarchal, capitalist system
  24. Feminist theory part 2
    • The causes include the gendered division of labor, the separation of spheres, and the socialization of children
    • Cultural attitudes toward crime against women differ based on the status of women in that society
    • Women are less often in a position to commit crimes and often commit crimes that are different from men’s
  25. Types 1 crime
    murder, rape, robbery
  26. type 2 crimes
    fraud, simple assault, vandalism
  27. ways of measure crime
    Uniform Crime Reports

    Self-reported surveys

    Victimization surveys

    Triangulation of data leads to the most accurate results
  28. predatory or street crime
    crimes against individuals or property
  29. Victimless or public order crimes
    acts committed by or between consenting adults
  30. Hate crimes
    criminal offenses motivated by the offender’s bias against a religious, ethnic/national origin, or sexual orientation group
  31. Organized crime
    on-going criminal enterprises that have the ultimate purpose of personal economic gain through illegitimate means
  32. Transnational organized crime
    takes place across national boundaries and is becoming an increasing problem
  33. Occupational or white-collar crime
    a violation of the law committed by an individual or group in the course of a legitimate, respected occupation or financial activity
  34. Types of occupational crimes
    • Crimes against the company
    • Crimes against employees
    • Crimes against costumers
    • Crimes against the public
  35. Terrorism
    premeditated politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant target by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience
  36. Cross-national comparisons of crime
    Different societal values can lead to different levels of crime

    When the economy is poor in a country, crime rises
  37. Global Crimes
    crimes that involve transnational conglomerates, smuggling of illegal goods and humans, or that violate international laws, treaties, or agreements
  38. World systems perspective
    • the cause of deviance lies in the global economy, inequalities between countries, and competition between countries for resources and wealth
    • Capitalism has caused inequality to rise between core and periphery nations
    • Periphery nations may resort to unconventional means to meet their goals
  39. The internet has led to an increase in global crime
    It provides a wide audience

    It gives a space to an “underground web” of illegal businesses

    It supports crime by connecting people to illegal operations

    It’s very difficult to police since law enforcement is unsure of whose jurisdiction it is
  40. Structural-functionalists(social policy)
    the justice system is important for maintaining order in society
  41. Conflict theorists(conflict theory)
    the criminal justice system presents crime as a threat from poor people and minorities and disproportionately arrests and sentences them
  42. Total institution
    completely controls the prisoners’ lives and regulates all of their activities

    • Inmates’ lives are changed through:
    • Degradation- mark the inmate as deviant
    • Mortification- break down the individual’s original self as the inmate experiences resocialization

    • Incarceration rates have increased
    • “Get tough on crime”
    • “War on drugs”
    • Preventative policies
  43. Functions or the purposes of prisons include
    • Revenge or retribution
    • Removing dangerous individuals from society
    • Deterrence
    • Recidivism

    The likelihood that someone who is arrested, convicted, and imprisoned will later be a repeat offender is 75%
  44. The Death Penalty
    The most controversial method of control

    The most common argument for using the death penalty, or capital punishment, is to deter people from crime, not only by the person killed, but by others who are deterred because they know this is a possibility

    Capital punishment is most common in Asia, the Middle East, and parts of Africa

    There is evidence that the death penalty is race and class biased

    A disproportionate number of minority and lower-class individuals are put to death in the U.S.

    It is more likely to be imposed if a white person has been murdered
  45. social capital
    social networks, shared norms, values, and understanding that facilitate cooperation within or among groups and access to important resources
  46. Shock probation
    releasing a first time offender early in the hope that the shock of prison life would deter them
  47. Restitution
    The offender renders money or service to the victim or community under supervised parole to compensate the victim
  48. Privatization of prison
    an attempt to turn prisons into more business-like, cost effective institutions
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sociology chapter 6
2011-10-31 01:11:07

sociology test
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